Armed struggle

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Armed struggle

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Armed struggle

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Armed struggle

4 Archival description results for Armed struggle

4 results directly related Exclude narrower terms

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) CREST

Congressional record house CREST General CIA records on Nelson Mandela : What if alive in free Some Sections Omitted
South Africa politics of racial reform.
South Africa: Dynamics of black politics
African National Congress of South Africa Organisation, Communist, Ties and short term prospects
Prospects for South Africa; Stability reform and violence
South Africa profile of an angry black ( Sections Omitted)
Prospects for South Africa stability reform and violence
Africa review
Terrorism review
Africa review
South Africa: The Boipatong massacre and the reigning of the security forces
South Africa weathering the storm
National daily intelligence
South Africa: Inkatha scandal may accelerate police restructuring
South Africa's brokers ballots and bullets
South Africa chronology
Africa review: special issue: South Africa entering the 1990's

Central Intelligence Agency

National Security Archive Declassified Document Set

Memoranda, reports, statements, cables and project statements covering the following:
United States Embassy (South Africa) reports that the African National Congress (ANC) was created to carry out sabotage, stating that the arrest of Nelson Mandela occurred after he planned subversive activities (1962). A memorandum issued by the Summit Conference of Independent African States held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (1963), agreeing to provide funding to help South African liberation movements and calling for the release from prison of Nelson Mandela, Robert Sobukwe and all other political prisoners. A memorandum on the Rivonia Trial providing biographical information on the Rivonia Trialists, and in which Nelson Mandela argues that opposition groups resorted to armed struggle only after avenues for peaceful change were blocked (1964). A report in which ANC and Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) leaders, including Nelson Mandela, Michael Harmel and Walter Sisulu are described as Communists, and documents presented during the Rivonia Trial are cited as evidence of the contacts between the ANC, PAC, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of the People's Republic of China (1964). A memorandum of conversation in which Cecil Eprile characterises black leaders like Nelson Mandela as careless and prone to bad judgment (1965). A cable relating to Resolution 473 of the United Nations Security Council urging South Africa to release all political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela (1980). Biographic sketch information on Nelson Mandela provided by the US Department of State (1983). A cable on the awarding of the international Simon Bolivar prize to Nelson Mandela by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) (1983). Correspondence to the South African Ambassador to the United States, calling for the release of Nelson Mandela (1984). A cable about the Johannesburg Star Newspaper reports that the arrest of Nelson Mandela 25 years ago occurred after he was betrayed by a US Central Intelligence Agency agent posing as a diplomat of the United States Consulate General in Durban (1986). A statement in which Chester A. Crocker calls for the release of Nelson Mandela (1986). A report in which the US Department of State Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on South Africa asserts that the first steps taken by South Africa must be the release of Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki and all other political prisoners (1987).

US State Department

National Public Broadcasting Archives

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on National Public Radio. Includes reports on:
Speculation on the possible release of Nelson Mandela from prison. Nelson Mandela’s views on the South African apartheid government. PW Botha’s offer to Nelson Mandela of conditional release, and Nelson Mandela’s rejection of the offer, communicated to the outside world by his daughter, Zindzi, at a mass gathering in Soweto. The firebombing of the Nelson Mandela home in Soweto. Meeting between Steven Solarz and PW Botha. The arrest of United Democratic Front (UDF) leader, Allan Boesak, ahead of a planned march to Pollsmoor Prison calling for the release of Nelson Mandela. Reports on the Pollsmoor March. Profiles of Nelson Mandela and the Mandela family. Profiles of the African National Congress (ANC), in which Mandela is mentioned. Scrapping of the pass laws in South Africa. Release Mandela Campaign, in which Aubrey Mokena, one of the campaign’s key organizers, is mentioned. Nelson Mandela’s calls for South African government negotiations with the ANC. UK Foreign Minister, Geoffrey Howe’s visit to South Africa and meeting with PW Botha. Zenani Mandela’s visit to the United States for a birthday commemoration in honour of Martin Luther King Jr. Twenty- fifth anniversary of Mandela’s imprisonment. Reports of a 1960 speech by Nelson Mandela on the reasons for the armed struggle. Free Mandela concert held at Wembley Stadium, London, in commemoration of his 70th birthday, and other commemorative events. Nelson Mandela’s hospitalisation because of tuberculosis. Reports on meetings between Nelson Mandela and PW Botha, and of his ‘secret’ negotiations with the South African government.
Freeing of Walter Sisulu, Ahmed Kathrada and other long-serving political prisoners. Reports on the imminent closure of Kapitan, one of Nelson Mandela’s favourite restaurants since the 1950s. Legalisation of the ANC, and announcement of other reforms by FW De Klerk.

National Public Radio

National Public Broadcasting Archives

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on National Public Radio. Includes reports on the following:
Nelson Mandela’s release from prison, and his first public speech to a mass gathering on the Grand Parade in Cape Town. Comments by Nelson Mandela and Harold Wolpe on the importance of continued economic sanctions against South Africa. Comments by Randall Robinson of Transafrica who believes that Nelson Mandela’s release should not be seen as the ultimate solution to all of South Africa’s problems. The reaction of the African National Congress (ANC) to Nelson Mandela’s release, and reports on the future of South Africa in light of Nelson Mandela’s release from prison. Report on race relations in South Africa since 1962, in which Nelson Mandela is mentioned. Nelson Mandela’s role in political negotiations and in shaping the new South African government, including reports on various meetings with FW De Klerk. Nelson Mandela’s role in seeking a solution to political violence in South Africa, particularly in the KwaZulu-Natal region. Profiles of Nelson Mandela, including reports about his birthplace in the Transkei. The London rock concert held in honour of Nelson Mandela after his release from prison. Report that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was instrumental in the arrest of Nelson Mandela in 1962.
Nelson Mandela’s tour of the United States after his release from prison. Speeches delivered at the United Nations. Nelson Mandela’s meetings with Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO) leader, Yasser Arafat, and Libyan leader, Muammar Gadhafi. ANC’s use of armed struggle as a bargaining chip in negotiations. Meetings between President Bush and Nelson Mandela, and Nelson Mandela addresses the US Congress. Nelson Mandela’s views on the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Meetings between President Margaret Thatcher and Nelson Mandela. Political violence in South African townships during the South African transition process. The suspension of armed struggle by the ANC. The first ANC conference held inside South Africa’s borders in thirty years. Nelson Mandela’s election as president of the ANC. The marital separation of Nelson and Winnie Mandela. Re-writing of South Africa’s constitution. The ANC’s suspension of talks with the South African government because of the Boipatong massacre. Comments by Nelson Mandela on the Bisho Massacre. The resumption of talks between the ANC and the South African government on South Africa’s political future. Reaction to the news of Chris Hani’s assassination. The awarding of the Liberty Medal to Nelson Mandela and De Klerk by President Bill Clinton. Nelson Mandela calling for the lifting of sanctions. The awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize to Nelson Mandela and FW De Klerk. The ANC’s campaign for South Africa’s first democratic elections. Reports of voting in the historic 1994 elections. A chronology of South African history with Mandela mentioned. The election victory of the ANC and Nelson Mandela’s victory speech. Inauguration ceremony in which Nelson Mandela was sworn in as the first democratically elected President of South Africa. Nelson Mandela’s first State of the Nation address, and his first 100 days as President Nelson Mandela’s visit to the US as President of South Africa, encouraging investment. Reports on Nelson Mandela's biography, ‘Long Walk to Freedom.' The death of Joe Slovo and memorial tributes by Nelson Mandela.

National Public Radio