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Ruth First Papers

The collection includes personal material of First and her immediate family such as correspondence and financial records, papers relating to First's work as a journalist in South Africa, as a university lecturer, an anti-apartheid activist, and as an author and editor of numerous books and articles on Africa and other political topics. Also included are research papers and printed material relating to First and her family, collected both during her lifetime and after her death.

Material related to the Rivonia Trial:
-Background material, correspondence and reviews concerning "No Easy Walk to Freedom," edited by Ruth First. Includes printed copies of Nelson Mandela’s speech at the Rivonia Trial, drafts of sections of the book, and a typescript of Mary Benson’s statement before the UN Special Committee on Apartheid in 1964, with handwritten alterations. Also includes correspondence, mainly between Ruth First and Heinemann Publishers, as well as clippings of newspaper reviews (RF/1/6/2)
-ANC publications includes introductory pamphlets on the ANC and the Rivonia trial, copies of magazines: Sechaba and Mayibuye.(RF/1/17/2/3)
-Materials on political detentions between 1963 and 1970, including a copy of the 1963 Detention Act, a radio script by Mary Benson entitled "Nelson Mandela and the Rivonia Trial," and notes produced by First (RF/1/18/2)
- Transcripts of interviews with Robben Island political prisoners (RF/1/18/1).
-Newspaper cuttings from both British and South African newspapers, mainly covering issues relating to politics in South Africa including the Rivonia Trial (RF/1/19)
-Correspondence (Feb 1964-Aug 1965) covering subjects such as the Rivonia Trial and First's exile to Britain. Correspondents include Govan Mbeki, Molly Bernstein and Julius Lewin (RF/2/1/2).

The collection is on indefinite loan to the Institute of Commonwealth Studies and remains the property of the Ruth First Memorial Trust.

First, Ruth

Mary Benson Papers

Mainly correspondence between Benson and fellow South African activists and large amounts of newspaper cuttings collected by Benson relating to South Africa and the struggle against Apartheid.

Records related to the Rivonia Trial:
-Nelson Mandela’s statement from the dock at the Rivonia Trial (ICS6/5/3)
-Elias Motsoaledi's statement (ICS6/5/7)
- Correspondence, reports and statements about the treatment of political prisoners in South Africa, including reports by the International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) and Amnesty International
- Papers related to Nelson Mandela’s imprisonment, collected by Benson when writing her biography of Mandela, "Nelson Mandela: the Man and the Movement."
- Correspondence between Mandela and Mary Benson. There is also correspondence between Benson and others, mainly related to Mandela and campaigns for his release from prison. Correspondents include Helen Suzman, Elinor Birley, Hilda Bernstein, Oliver Tambo, Winnie Mandela, Denis Healey and Ismail Ayob.
- Typed notes on Mandela and other prisoner
-News clippings concerning Mandela, mainly from British newspapers. Subjects covered in particular detail include the Rivonia Trial and campaigns for Mandela's release (ICS6/8)

Benson, Mary

Papers of John Mendelson, M P

Letters, circulars, reports relating to South Africa including letter from the British Consulate-General in Johannesburg re the Rivonia Treason Trial (1963), copy of a letter from David Astor to Harold Wilson (1965), letter from Stop the Seventy Tour re possible resumption of arms sales (1970), letter from John Mendelson to David Astor re Nelson Mandela and his colleagues (1974).

Mendelson, John

South African Political Papers of His Honour Judge Kellock

The material includes fragments of the Rivonia Trial Transcript concerning the details of the charges; news sheets and press releases about the Rivonia Trial; a statement by Kellock on the Trial; information sheets on South African legislation; minutes and circulars from the World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners. Other material includes Anti-Apartheid Movement correspondence, and national and executive committee meeting minutes for 1965 - 1966; correspondence relating to the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee and its officials; and papers relating to the Nyasaland emergency of 1959.

Judge Kellock, (formerly Mr. Thomas Oslaf Kellock, Q.C.) was Chairman of the National Committee of the Anti-Apartheid Movement in Britain from 1963-65. This group of papers is mostly concerned with the period when Mr. Kellock was sent to South Africa by Christian Action to act as an observer for the Defence and Aid Fund at the Rivonia Trial in 1964.

Kellock, Thomas Oslaf

Mandela

Political biography of Nelson Mandela and his unique role in the liberation struggle in South Africa. Includes archive material of the Treason trial, the Rivonia trial and a filmed interview while underground. Directed by Lionel Ngakane and Niven Howie. Produced by Divemay Films. Edited by Julia Beer.

Untitled

Life Under Apartheid Collection

The programmes and documents in this collection illustrate what life was like for ordinary South Africans under Apartheid, as well as documenting key political moments.

Items related directly to the Rivonia Trial:
-BBC Television programme: Panorama: Race Problems Around the World. The documentary deals with the growth of racial tension in the Britain and the USA as Mandela is imprisoned for life. This programme was first broadcast on 15 June 1964. 50 minutes, 25 seconds in length. Contains a report by Robin Day from Pretoria where Mandela and others have been sentenced in the Rivonia Trial. Includes interviews with those who condemn the trial and sentencing: Helen Suzman, Alan Paton, Winnie Mandela.
-Letter from a cameraman about "Panorama" programme (28 June 19964). This letter was sent by Ernest Christie to the series producer David Wheeler on South African press reaction to Robin Day's segment in the "Panorama: Race Problems Around the World" which he had filmed.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

British Library Newspaper Collection

Collections includes all UK national daily and Sunday newspapers from 1801 to the present, most UK and Irish regional and local newspapers, selected newspapers from around the world in European languages, a range of UK and Irish popular periodicals, mostly published weekly and fortnightly.

These would include coverage of the Rivonia Trial.

Untitled

Mandela Trials Papers

Photocopies of papers collected by Joel Joffe, lawyer acting for Nelson Mandela, relating to Mandela's trial in Pretoria (1962) and the Rivonia Trial (1963-1964); including Mandela's application to have the Pretoria trial postponed, October 1962; Mandela's address to the court in mitigation of the sentence of five years imprisonment, detailing his political commitment and activities in the African National Congress (ANC), November 1962; copy of the indictment in the Rivonia Trial, initial statement made by Mandela to his lawyers, giving details of his early life; notes by Mandela on his life and ANC association; copy of Mandela's statement from the dock, signed by Mandela, manuscript notes by Mandela to use if he were sentenced to death, and manuscript notes by Mandela referring to the tribal council called Imbizo.

Joffe, Joel

South African Trials

Transcripts of political cases.
Peripherally related to the Rivonia Trial is File 4: Inquest to establish cause of death of Looksmart Ngudle. It contains: transcript of complete proceedings. Pretoria, 21st Oct. 1963 - 23rd Dec. 1963. Looksmart Ngudle, a ninety-day detainee held under the Sabotage Act, was found dead, hanging in his cell at Pretoria Central Police Station, on September 5th, after 16 days in detention. He had been arrested in Cape Town and was found in possession of a firearm and some African National Congress leaflets. The four witnesses, held at the same time as Ngudle, said when cross-examined by the Defence that they had been tortured with electric shocks and severe beatings. One said that he was forced to sign a statement claiming that Ngudle was an important Umkonto we Sizwe leader (Ngudle was named in the Rivonia Trial as a co-conspirator). Each of the witnesses stated that Ngudle had told them that he was being tortured. The state claimed that Ngudle hanged himself because he had betrayed his comrades and had been told that he was going to be sentenced to death anyway. Further evidence of torture was ruled irrelevant: the court refused to accept the Defence's contention that torture (which the police denied) was a contributing factor to Ngudle's suicide. The hearing was adjourned.

Untitled

African Writers' Club: BBC Africa Services Collection

Talk about the struggle of black people of South Africa living under apartheid. The speaker talks about the role of the African National Congress (ANC) in the fight for freedom. The names of many freedom fighters are listed. There is also a detailed discussion about the 'Rivonia Treason Trial'.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

Rivonia Trial, South Africa, 1963-4: Nelson Mandela Dictabelt Dubbings

Dubbings of seven dictabelts loaned by the National Archives of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa, of court recordings made at the Court of Justice in Pretoria on 20 April 1964. The blue 'dictabelts' are a type of audio recording, developed by the Dictaphone company, which was mainly used in offices between the 1940s and the 1960s. The short broad plastic belts were capable of being flattened and posted but could not be wiped and reused. It appears that the whole Rivonia Trial was recorded on dictabelts in line with normal court procedure at the time. These dubbings comprise only the opening of the defence case by Defence Counsel Bram Fischer, followed by interjections from Justice Quartus de Wet and Prosecutor Percy Yutar, then a three-hour speech by Accused Number One (Nelson Mandela). Extracts from the recordings have been published by SABC entitled 'The voice of Nelson Mandela: extracts from famous speeches', SABC/EMI, 2002 (EMI 724353736521; NSA shelfmark 1CD0189137).

Transcripts available.

Untitled

Mary Benson Papers

  • GB ULSOAS MR-RT-147
  • Collection
  • 1946 - 1974
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

The sections of the collection related to the Rivonia Trial are press cuttings concerning political protest, especially the Treason and Rivonia Trials c 1958-1962. Related collection also at Institute of Commonwealth Studies, London University.

Benson, Mary

Papers of Sir Patrick Wall

  • US UHBJL MR-RT-149
  • Collection
  • 1890 - 1992
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

Sir Patrick was Vice Chairman of the British Section of the Inter Parliamentary Union (1974 - 1984) and Chairman of the British Bahrain, British Maltese, British South Africa and British Taiwan Groups. He represented Britain at the 17th General Assembly of the United Nations in 1962. The introduction of the General Law Amendment Act, the Rivonia Trials and the United Nations conference on sanctions are some of the more significant topics on which files were accumulated in the early 1960s [DPW/48/484; 487; 486 & 488].

Wall, Patrick

The Guardian and the Observer Digital Archive

This archive will eventually contain the digital reproduction of every page, article and advert published in the Guardian (since 1821) and the Observer (since 1791). Currently it is up to 2000. A search for Rivonia Trial reveals articles from both newspapers.

Guardian

Archive of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM)

Archive of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM) and predecessor material including the Boycott Movement. Material directly related to the Rivonia Trial includes:
O.7 Political Prisoners Campaigns, 1956-95:
-O.7.1.b Correspondence, 1962-70: Correspondence concerning the Rivonia trialists and other condemned South African leaders, 1964 (MSS AAM 1791)
-O.7.5.e General files, 1961-95: Information on the Rivonia trial and trialists, 1963-90 (MSS AAM 1953)

W.2 African National Congress (ANC) posters, 1978-95:
'We salute our leaders. Sentenced to life imprisonment. Rivonia 1963. Mandela, Sisulu, Mbeki, Mhlaba, Motsoaledi, Mlangeni, Kathrada, Goldberg.' 1980s? Mainly black and white; photographs (MSS AAM 2512/2/4), 1 poster

Rivonia Trial references might also appear in other parts of this collection for example, the campaigns the AAM took relating to the Trial might appear in the minutes of the Executive Committee and in annual reports.

British Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM)

Papers of Stephen Clingman Relating to Bram Fischer

The papers were collected by Stephen Clingman while researching his biography entitled "Bram Fischer: Afrikaner Revolutionary" (1998). They are mainly photocopies of correspondence and newspaper cuttings.

The Rivonia Trial material appears in section relating to legal and political cases in which Bram Fischer was involved (boxes 20-21), Shelfmark: MSS. Afr. S. 2444 / 21, 1 box (285 folios):
fols. 1-157) the Rivonia Trial (1963-6). Includes newspaper cuttings and typescripts entitled:
-Operation Mayibuye'
-'The Voice of the African National Congress'
-'A Call To The Youth' (issued by the Johannesburg District of the South African Communist Party)

Clingman, Stephen

Action Committee on Southern Africa [Actie Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika] : [Part 1]

AKZA was a national organisation based in the Flemish-speaking part of Belgium. It operated from 1972-1991 and developed out of progressive student organisations. It started as the Flemish Angola Committee and supported the liberation movements directly. They organised numerous boycott campaigns and was instrumental in the formation of the largest social action coalition in Flanders, the Flemish Anti-Apartheid Coalition (Vlaamse Anti-Apartheid Koalitie - VAAK). It also collaborated with other AAMs and was part of the Liaison Group of Anti-Apartheid Movements within the European Community (known as the Liaison Group).

Africa Centre

The Africa Centre was established in 1964 in London to create awareness about developments in Africa. Leading African artists, writers, politicians and musicians met at the centre and it served as a platform by organising evenings with theatre and discussions.

Africa Educational Trust

The Africa Educational Trust (AET) was founded in 1958. Originally it was part of the Africa Bureau, which later split into the Africa Bureau and Africa Educational and Publication Trust. The main aim was to help exiles and refugees with their education.

Africa Bureau : [Part 1]

The Africa Bureau was set up in 1952 by, amongst others, Mary Benson and Rev. Michael Scott, and operated until 1978. It was active in the area of international sanctions and worked with the AAM in the 1960s. It later split into the Africa Bureau and Africa Educational Trust.

Africa Bureau : [Part 2]

The Africa Bureau was set up in 1952 by, amongst others, Mary Benson and Rev. Michael Scott, and operated until 1978. It was active in the area of international sanctions and worked with the AAM in the 1960s. It later split into the Africa Bureau and Africa Educational Trust.

Action Committee on Southern Africa [Actie Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika] : [Part 2]

AKZA was a national organisation based in the Flemish-speaking part of Belgium. It operated from 1972-1991 and developed out of progressive student organisations. It started as the Flemish Angola Committee and supported the liberation movements directly. They organised numerous boycott campaigns and was instrumental in the formation of the largest social action coalition in Flanders, the Flemish Anti-Apartheid Coalition (Vlaamse Anti-Apartheid Koalitie - VAAK). It also collaborated with other AAMs and was part of the Liaison Group of Anti-Apartheid Movements within the European Community (known as the Liaison Group).

Amnesty International : International Secretariat : [Part 1]

Amnesty International was founded in 1961 in London as an independent organisation to mobilise public opinion in defence of people who are imprisoned because their ideas are unacceptable to the government in their country. One of their areas of work is campaigning for the release of political prisoners and actions against torture.

Amnesty International : International Secretariat : [Part 3]

Amnesty International was founded in 1961 in London as an independent organisation to mobilise public opinion in defence of people who are imprisoned because their ideas are unacceptable to the government in their country. One of their areas of work is campaigning for the release of political prisoners and actions against torture.

Amnesty International : International Secretariat : [Part 4]

Amnesty International was founded in 1961 in London as an independent organisation to mobilise public opinion in defence of people who are imprisoned because their ideas are unacceptable to the government in their country. One of their areas of work is campaigning for the release of political prisoners and actions against torture.

Amnesty International : International Secretariat : [Part 2]

Amnesty International was founded in 1961 in London as an independent organisation to mobilise public opinion in defence of people who are imprisoned because their ideas are unacceptable to the government in their country. One of their areas of work is campaigning for the release of political prisoners and actions against torture.

Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 3]

The AAM started in 1959 under the name The Boycott Movement Committee. It changed its name to AAM in 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre to become a permanent organisation. It grew into one of the biggest anti-apartheid organisations in the world with committees covering specific subjects and branches all over the UK. It was a member of the European Liaison Group. It was often the fore-runner and initiator of international campaigns and worked closely with the ANC and UN agencies. It dissolved itself in 1995 to continue as Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

Anti-Apartheid Movement Germany [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung] : [Part 2]

The Anti-Apartheid Movement Germany (AAB) operated from 1974 till 1994. It was formed on the initiative of the Mainz Working Group on Southern Africa (MAKSA). It was very active in the campaigns against the arms trade with South Africa, the release of Nelson Mandela, as well as the fruit, sport, Royal Dutch Shell and cultural boycott. It consisted of a network of local groups and worked with a variety of peace and religious organisations. In the late 1970s/early 1980s it used shareholders meetings (by buying shares) to pressurise banks not to deal with South Africa and pressured the Federal government to take an active anti-apartheid position. The AAB also participated in the Liaison Group. In May 1994 the AAB changed its name to Afrika-Süd Aktionsbündnis, which continued to carry out solidarity work with Southern Africa. Since the end of August 2001, Afrika-Süd Aktionsbündnis was dissolved and Koordination Südliches Afrika (KOSA, Co-ordination for Southern Africa) became the successor organisation.

Anti-Apartheid Movement Austria [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung Osterreich] : [Part 3]

The AAM Austria started in 1977 in response to the Soweto uprisings with a small group of people who lobbied the general public and government to take a stand against apartheid. It organised numerous boycott and solidarity campaigns, pushing the Austrian government to take a more anti-apartheid position. It gave direct support to the liberation movements. Besides solidarity with South Africa, the AAM also worked for Namibia. It was a member of the European anti-apartheid movements group. It dissolved in 1993 to continue as the Southern Africa Documentation and Cooperation Centre (SADOCC).

Anti-Apartheid Movement Austria [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung Osterreich] : [Part 4]

The AAM Austria started in 1977 in response to the Soweto uprisings with a small group of people who lobbied the general public and government to take a stand against apartheid. It organised numerous boycott and solidarity campaigns, pushing the Austrian government to take a more anti-apartheid position. It gave direct support to the liberation movements. Besides solidarity with South Africa, the AAM also worked for Namibia. It was a member of the European anti-apartheid movements group. It dissolved in 1993 to continue as the Southern Africa Documentation and Cooperation Centre (SADOCC).

Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 4]

The AAM started in 1959 under the name The Boycott Movement Committee. It changed its name to AAM in 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre to become a permanent organisation. It grew into one of the biggest anti-apartheid organisations in the world with committees covering specific subjects and branches all over the UK. It was a member of the European Liaison Group. It was often the fore-runner and initiator of international campaigns and worked closely with the ANC and UN agencies. It dissolved itself in 1995 to continue as Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

Anti-Apartheid Movement Austria [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung Osterreich] : [Part 1]

The AAM Austria started in 1977 in response to the Soweto uprisings with a small group of people who lobbied the general public and government to take a stand against apartheid. It organised numerous boycott and solidarity campaigns, pushing the Austrian government to take a more anti-apartheid position. It gave direct support to the liberation movements. Besides solidarity with South Africa, the AAM also worked for Namibia. It was a member of the European anti-apartheid movements group. It dissolved in 1993 to continue as the Southern Africa Documentation and Cooperation Centre (SADOCC).

Anti-Apartheid Movement Austria [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung Osterreich] : [Part 2]

The AAM Austria started in 1977 in response to the Soweto uprisings with a small group of people who lobbied the general public and government to take a stand against apartheid. It organised numerous boycott and solidarity campaigns, pushing the Austrian government to take a more anti-apartheid position. It gave direct support to the liberation movements. Besides solidarity with South Africa, the AAM also worked for Namibia. It was a member of the European anti-apartheid movements group. It dissolved in 1993 to continue as the Southern Africa Documentation and Cooperation Centre (SADOCC).

Anti-Apartheid Movement : Scottish Committee : [Part 1]

Activities in Scotland started in the 1960s with AAM branches in Glasgow and Edinburgh, leading to the establishment of the Scottish Committee and opening an office in 1989. It was active in boycott campaigns, support to South African anti-apartheid organisations, the End Loans to South Africa campaigns and the call for comprehensive sanctions. It had a women’s subcommittee, youth desk and a trade union subcommittee as well as a Scottish Committee for Local Authority Action against Apartheid. It dissolved in 1994 and continued as Action for Southern Africa Scotland (ACTSA Scotland).

Anti-Apartheid Movement : Scottish Committee : [Part 2]

Activities in Scotland started in the 1960s with AAM branches in Glasgow and Edinburgh, leading to the establishment of the Scottish Committee and opening an office in 1989. It was active in boycott campaigns, support to South African anti-apartheid organisations, the End Loans to South Africa campaigns and the call for comprehensive sanctions. It had a women’s subcommittee, youth desk and a trade union subcommittee as well as a Scottish Committee for Local Authority Action against Apartheid. It dissolved in 1994 and continued as Action for Southern Africa Scotland (ACTSA Scotland).

Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 1]

The AAM started in 1959 under the name The Boycott Movement Committee. It changed its name to AAM in 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre to become a permanent organisation. It grew into one of the biggest anti-apartheid organisations in the world with committees covering specific subjects and branches all over the UK. It was a member of the European Liaison Group. It was often the fore-runner and initiator of international campaigns and worked closely with the ANC and UN agencies. It dissolved itself in 1995 to continue as Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 2]

The AAM started in 1959 under the name The Boycott Movement Committee. It changed its name to AAM in 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre to become a permanent organisation. It grew into one of the biggest anti-apartheid organisations in the world with committees covering specific subjects and branches all over the UK. It was a member of the European Liaison Group. It was often the fore-runner and initiator of international campaigns and worked closely with the ANC and UN agencies. It dissolved itself in 1995 to continue as Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

Anti-Apartheid Movement Austria [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung Osterreich] : [Part 5]

The AAM Austria started in 1977 in response to the Soweto uprisings with a small group of people who lobbied the general public and government to take a stand against apartheid. It organised numerous boycott and solidarity campaigns, pushing the Austrian government to take a more anti-apartheid position. It gave direct support to the liberation movements. Besides solidarity with South Africa, the AAM also worked for Namibia. It was a member of the European anti-apartheid movements group. It dissolved in 1993 to continue as the Southern Africa Documentation and Cooperation Centre (SADOCC).

Anti-Apartheid Movement Germany [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung] : [Part 1]

The Anti-Apartheid Movement Germany (AAB) operated from 1974 till 1994. It was formed on the initiative of the Mainz Working Group on Southern Africa (MAKSA). It was very active in the campaigns against the arms trade with South Africa, the release of Nelson Mandela, as well as the fruit, sport, Royal Dutch Shell and cultural boycott. It consisted of a network of local groups and worked with a variety of peace and religious organisations. In the late 1970s/early 1980s it used shareholders meetings (by buying shares) to pressurise banks not to deal with South Africa and pressured the Federal government to take an active anti-apartheid position. The AAB also participated in the Liaison Group. In May 1994 the AAB changed its name to Afrika-Süd Aktionsbündnis, which continued to carry out solidarity work with Southern Africa. Since the end of August 2001, Afrika-Süd Aktionsbündnis was dissolved and Koordination Südliches Afrika (KOSA, Co-ordination for Southern Africa) became the successor organisation.

Anti-Apartheid Movement, London (London Anti-Apartheid Committee) branch : [Part 2]

AAM London was the umbrella organisation for the 32 anti-apartheid groups in the Greater London area, and a regional committee of the national anti-apartheid movement. It took an active role in promoting the boycott movement, encouraging local groups to picket supermarkets, branches of Barclays Bank, Shell garages and other organisations supporting apartheid. It also encouraged involvement by the trade unions and churches, among many other organisations, in the anti-apartheid struggle.

Anti-Apartheid Movement, London (London Anti-Apartheid Committee) branch : [Part 1]

AAM London was the umbrella organisation for the 32 anti-apartheid groups in the Greater London area, and a regional committee of the national anti-apartheid movement. It took an active role in promoting the boycott movement, encouraging local groups to picket supermarkets, branches of Barclays Bank, Shell garages and other organisations supporting apartheid. It also encouraged involvement by the trade unions and churches, among many other organisations, in the anti-apartheid struggle.

Anti-Apartheid Movement, London (London Anti-Apartheid Committee) branch : [Part 3]

AAM London was the umbrella organisation for the 32 anti-apartheid groups in the Greater London area, and a regional committee of the national anti-apartheid movement. It took an active role in promoting the boycott movement, encouraging local groups to picket supermarkets, branches of Barclays Bank, Shell garages and other organisations supporting apartheid. It also encouraged involvement by the trade unions and churches, among many other organisations, in the anti-apartheid struggle.

Anti-imperialist Solidarity Committee - Frankfurt am Main [Antiimperialistiesche Solidaritätskomitee]

The ASK operated from 1973 till 1990. It was a platform against racism and neo-colonialism and its members were individuals as well as organisations. Some of the organisations were the German Student Union, the Socialist German Work Youth, the German Communist Party and Spartakus. It was active in information campaigns and gave practical financial support to the liberation movements. It was a member of the Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity Organisation (AAPSO).

Birmingham Anti-Apartheid Movement

Birmingham Anti-Apartheid Movement was formed around 1966 and was very active in the consumer boycott. It started twinning projects with the ANC in the Western Transvaal and organised an annual ‘Soweto Walk’ to raise funds.

Bishop Ambrose Reeves Trust

The South Africa Racial Amity Trust (SARAT), launched in 1966, was the predecessor of The Bishop Ambrose Reeves Trust (BART). SARAT aimed to promote knowledge about apartheid through research and publications. It paid special attention to the plight of children under apartheid. It was renamed BART in 1980 in honour of its treasurer. It was dissolved in 1996.

British Defence and Aid Fund Southern Africa : [Part 1]

BDAF was the forerunner of the International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF). It started life as an initiative of Canon Collins to merge all the Christian Aid funds for South Africa sometime between 1958 and 1961. Its role was to raise funds for the legal defence of political prisoners, and for their families, and later to raise public consciousness in the UK for the international organisation.

British Defence and Aid Fund Southern Africa : [Part 2]

BDAF was the forerunner of the International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF). It started life as an initiative of Canon Collins to merge all the Christian Aid funds for South Africa sometime between 1958 and 1961. Its role was to raise funds for the legal defence of political prisoners, and for their families, and later to raise public consciousness in the UK for the international organisation.

Campaign Against Arms Trade

The Campaign Against Arms Trade (CAAT) was established in 1974 by several peace and other organisations concerned about the growing arms trade. It is a broad coalition of organisations working towards ending the arms trade. It works through local groups and networks and organises demonstrations and campaigns.

Canon Collins Educational Trust for Southern Africa

The Canon Collins Trust was founded by the British Defence and Aid Fund (BDAF) in 1981 to assist South African and Namibian refugee students to receive higher education and training. Students received their training in the UK and independent African states. It merged with the Legal Assistance Trust in 2012 and continues to operate as Canon Collins Educational and Legal Assistance Trust.

Commission of the Churches on International Affairs - World Council of Churches

The CCIA started to operate in 1946 and is comprised of thirty people nominated by churches and regional ecumenical organisations to advise the World Council of Churches (WCC) in international affairs. It focuses on peace-making and peaceful resolution of conflicts, militarism, disarmament and arms control. After 1975, a Human Rights Advisory Group was formed within the CCIA to advise on policy in this area. The scope of the organisation was much extended in 2006, when it merged with three other WCC advisory bodies.

Christian Concern for Southern Africa

Christian Concern for Southern Africa (CCSA) was founded in 1972 as an interdenominational Christian body concerned with raising awareness of the political situation in South Africa and to co-ordinate the response of British Churches. In particular, the involvement of oil companies was targeted leading to the establishment of the Oil Working Group in 1979. The organisation also worked towards sanctions against South Africa, and provided an Ethical Investment Research Service. It was dissolved in 1993.

City of London Anti-Apartheid Group (City Group) : [Part 1]

The City of London Anti-Apartheid Group was a breakaway group of the national AAM, founded in 1982 by Norma Kitson, and allied to the Revolutionary Communist Group. City Group developed a close working relationship not only with the ANC and SWAPO, but also with the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), AZAPO, and Black Consciousness supporters. In 1985 City Group was expelled from the national AAM, and from 1986 - 1990 its supporters maintained a Non-Stop Picket outside the South African Embassy in Trafalgar Square calling for the release of Nelson Mandela. The City Group archives provide an opportunity to understand a different perspective on the international anti-apartheid movement.

Christian Aid : [Part 3]

Christian Aid was instrumental in galvanising anti-apartheid efforts in the UK. Director Rev. Michael Taylor drove the creation of the Southern Africa Coalition in the 1980s, which brought together trade unions, church groups and others to press the British government to help end apartheid. The organisation started as Christian Reconstruction in Europe shortly after World War II. It became a department of the British Council of Churches, and was eventually renamed the Department of Interchurch Aid and Refugee Service. It was renamed Christian Aid in 1964.

City of London Anti-Apartheid Group (City Group) : [Part 2]

The City of London Anti-Apartheid Group was a breakaway group of the national AAM, founded in 1982 by Norma Kitson, and allied to the Revolutionary Communist Group. City Group developed a close working relationship not only with the ANC and SWAPO, but also with the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), AZAPO, and Black Consciousness supporters. In 1985 City Group was expelled from the national AAM, and from 1986 - 1990 its supporters maintained a Non-Stop Picket outside the South African Embassy in Trafalgar Square calling for the release of Nelson Mandela. The City Group archives provide an opportunity to understand a different perspective on the international anti-apartheid movement.

Christian Aid : [Part 1]

Christian Aid was instrumental in galvanising anti-apartheid efforts in the UK. Director Rev. Michael Taylor drove the creation of the Southern Africa Coalition in the 1980s, which brought together trade unions, church groups and others to press the British government to help end apartheid. The organisation started as Christian Reconstruction in Europe shortly after World War II. It became a department of the British Council of Churches, and was eventually renamed the Department of Interchurch Aid and Refugee Service. It was renamed Christian Aid in 1964.

Christian Aid : [Part 2]

Christian Aid was instrumental in galvanising anti-apartheid efforts in the UK. Director Rev. Michael Taylor drove the creation of the Southern Africa Coalition in the 1980s, which brought together trade unions, church groups and others to press the British government to help end apartheid. The organisation started as Christian Reconstruction in Europe shortly after World War II. It became a department of the British Council of Churches, and was eventually renamed the Department of Interchurch Aid and Refugee Service. It was renamed Christian Aid in 1964.

Committee on South African War Resistance : [Part 1]

COSAWR was founded in 1978 by South African draft (military service) resisters active in the UK. It was a self-help organisation for those escaping conscription in the SADF and to support those who were resisting conscription within the country. It raised the issue of militarism in South Africa and conducted research into the South African military structure and resistance to it. COSAWR established a presence in several other European countries. Its magazine 'Resister' became the leading magazine on South Africa's militarisation.

Committee on South African War Resistance : [Part 2]

COSAWR was founded in 1978 by South African draft (military service) resisters active in the UK. It was a self-help organisation for those escaping conscription in the SADF and to support those who were resisting conscription within the country. It raised the issue of militarism in South Africa and conducted research into the South African military structure and resistance to it. COSAWR established a presence in several other European countries. Its magazine 'Resister' became the leading magazine on South Africa's militarisation.

Commonwealth Pressure Groups, Trade Unions and Political Parties Materials

The Institute of Commonwealth Studies at the University of London has three big collections covering pressure groups, trade unions and political parties within the Commonwealth. The collections started in 1960 and have a special emphasis on primary materials. Besides printed materials, the collections also contain posters, badges, and stickers. Anti-apartheid activities are covered in the collections.

Country Committee for South Africa Action [Landskomiteen Sydafrika-Aktion] (Danish Anti Apartheid Movement) : [Part 1]

The Country Committee for South Africa Action (LSA) was formed in 1978 by several organisations and political parties. It was one of the first organisations to co-ordinate campaigns at the local level. It organised several information campaigns involving speaking tours of ANC members as well as cultural events. It continues to operate as Africa Contact.

Coventry Borough Labour Party : [Part 2]

The Coventry Labour Representation Committee was founded in December 1902. The Coventry Borough Labour Party, which grew out of it and was established in 1906, expanded its influence so that by 1923 Coventry had returned its first Labour MP. The party was instrumental in establishing the Coventry Anti-apartheid Committee in 1960. The early records of the party were destroyed during the blitz on the city in 1940, and the surviving records mostly date from after the war.

Danish Church Aid

The Danish Church Aid (DCA) was established in 1966 as a church-based relief and development organisation. In the 1970s it became more involved in activities against colonialism and racism in South Africa, inspired by the Programme to Combat Racism of the World Council of Churches.

Coventry Borough Labour Party : [Part 3]

The Coventry Labour Representation Committee was founded in December 1902. The Coventry Borough Labour Party, which grew out of it and was established in 1906, expanded its influence so that by 1923 Coventry had returned its first Labour MP. The party was instrumental in establishing the Coventry Anti-apartheid Committee in 1960. The early records of the party were destroyed during the blitz on the city in 1940, and the surviving records mostly date from after the war.

Country Committee for South Africa Action [Landskomiteen Sydafrika-Aktion] (Danish Anti Apartheid Movement) : [Part 2]

The Country Committee for South Africa Action (LSA) was formed in 1978 by several organisations and political parties. It was one of the first organisations to co-ordinate campaigns at the local level. It organised several information campaigns involving speaking tours of ANC members as well as cultural events. It continues to operate as Africa Contact.

Coventry Borough Labour Party : [Part 1]

The Coventry Labour Representation Committee was founded in December 1902. The Coventry Borough Labour Party, which grew out of it and was established in 1906, expanded its influence so that by 1923 Coventry had returned its first Labour MP. The party was instrumental in establishing the Coventry Anti-apartheid Committee in 1960. The early records of the party were destroyed during the blitz on the city in 1940, and the surviving records mostly date from after the war.

End Loans to Southern Africa

The End Loans to Southern Africa (ELTSA) started in 1974 with campaigns against British banks with South Africa ties. Its aim was to end apartheid through the imposition of effective financial sanctions. It broadened its work to include consumer and shareholder action and parliamentary lobbying. It did a lot of research to support its campaigns. It transformed itself into the Southern Africa Economic Research Unit (SAERU) in 1994.

European Confederation of Free Trade Unions

In 1969 the European Trade Union Secretariat (ETUS) adopted a new name, the European Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ECFTU). It was active in the area of code of conduct for companies investing in South Africa, the conduct of national and international trade unions towards South Africa and the application of the European Community Code of Conduct for multinational companies. In 1973 the ECFTU merged with the Trade Union Committee for the European Free Trade Area (EFTA-TUC) and continued as the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC).

Ethical Investment Research Service

In 1983 the Ethical Investment Research Service (EIRIS) was founded as a socially responsible investment (SRI) research house with a purview extending beyond its national boundaries in the United Kingdom. EIRIS was first established by a group of British churches and charities, including Christian Concern for Southern Africa, who needed information to put their principles into practice regarding their investments. At that time, they were particularly keen on understanding more about what British companies were doing to alleviate the situation in apartheid South Africa.

Evangelical Women’s Group Germany [Evangelische Frauenarbeit in Deutschland - Frauen gegen Apartheid] : [Part 2]

This women’s group of the Protestant churches started its activities in 1977 with a boycott of South African fruit and established Frauen gegen Apartheid. It operated till 1993. It also campaigned against the Krugerrand and bank loans. For 15 years, they organised a vigil every Thursday in front of the South African Consulate.

Finnish Africa Committee

The FAC started in 1970 and organised information campaigns for trade unions, and political parties. It established, together with the Finnish Peace Committee, the fundraising organisation Peace Fund in 1973 to support liberation movements in Southern Africa. It focused more and more on apartheid as from the late 1970s and organised boycott campaigns.

Evangelical Women’s Group Germany [Evangelische Frauenarbeit in Deutschland - Frauen gegen Apartheid] : [Part 1]

This women’s group of the Protestant churches started its activities in 1977 with a boycott of South African fruit and established Frauen gegen Apartheid. It operated till 1993. It also campaigned against the Krugerrand and bank loans. For 15 years, they organised a vigil every Thursday in front of the South African Consulate.

European Economic Community

The European Economic Community was established in 1957 as a customs union towards the unification of Europe. Since 1993 it operates as the European Union - a political and economic union of European countries. The EEC was important with respect to sanctions against South Africa. The organisation was a rallying point for European anti-apartheid organisations to act against South Africa. Amongst other, it imposed a ban on trade and investments by member states in 1986.

Hannah Stanton

Hannah Stanton was a missionary and anti-apartheid activist who worked in South Africa and the UK. Following the increased violence and activities of the South African police, culminating in the Sharpeville Massacre of 21 March 1960, she found herself under surveillance. On 30 March 1960 she was arrested and held without charge, and without access to a lawyer until 21 May 1960, when she was deported to the UK. During this time she was held at Pretoria Central Gaol, where she shared a cell with Helen Joseph. After her deportation she became involved in various anti-apartheid campaigns, including those of the AAM.

Hackney Trades Council

The Hackney Trades Council was a trade union organisation that was involved in a wide variety of local and national campaigns and issues, including the anti-apartheid movement.

Health and Refugee Trust of South Africa

The Health and Refugee Trust of South Africa was established in 1988. The prime objective of HEART was the provision of health and welfare to the tens of thousands of South African refugees during the apartheid regime. They sought to actively promote health education, immunisation, nutrition, and provision of essential drugs, water and sanitation and treatment of common diseases.

International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa : [Part 2]

IDAF started in 1956 as Christian Action, later becoming the British Defence and Aid Fund which started its work with the 1956 Treason Trial in South Africa. IDAF became an international organisation in 1965. The South African Defence and Aid Fund was banned in 1966. Over the years, many national affiliates and branches were set-up. It smuggled millions of pounds into South Africa to defend thousands of political activists and provided aid to their families. It paid lawyers to defend political detainees and provided financial support families of political prisoners. It published numerous books and films on repression in South Africa.

International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa : [Part 1]

IDAF started in 1956 as Christian Action, later becoming the British Defence and Aid Fund which started its work with the 1956 Treason Trial in South Africa. IDAF became an international organisation in 1965. The South African Defence and Aid Fund was banned in 1966. Over the years, many national affiliates and branches were set-up. It smuggled millions of pounds into South Africa to defend thousands of political activists and provided aid to their families. It paid lawyers to defend political detainees and provided financial support families of political prisoners. It published numerous books and films on repression in South Africa.

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

The ICFTU was an international trade union founded in London in 1949 by unions opposing growing communist control of the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). Its activities on South Africa were organised through the Coordination Committee on Southern Africa and the International Solidarity Fund Committee. ICFTU was dissolved in 2006 when it merged with the World Confederation of Labour (WCL) to form the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC).

International Labour Organisation

The ILO is a specialised agency of the UN, and was founded in 1919 to work for the betterment of people in their place of work under conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. It organised numerous conferences on South Africa and apartheid and was active on boycott issues related to workers’ rights.

International Transport Workers’ Federation : [Part 2]

The International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) is an international trade union federation of transport workers' unions. The ITF was founded in London in 1886 by European Seafarers and Dockers’ union leaders who realised the need to organise internationally against strike breakers. The ITF represents transport workers at world level and promotes their interests through global campaigning and solidarity. It works for the advancement of fundamental human rights and trade union rights and opposes discrimination. The Reports on Africa contains reports on its activities, amongst others, in South Africa.

Lawyers Against Apartheid

Lawyers Against Apartheid was formed in 1986 to lobby the legal community in the UK. It was affiliated to the AAM. As a specialist organisation, it concentrated on the exposure of the illegitimacy of the apartheid regime and promoting the Prisoner of War status for captured freedom fighters. It dissolved in 1996.

Len T. Holden

Len Holden was a Bedford Council member, and founder of the Bedford Anti-Apartheid Group. The group was active from the 1980s until 1991, lobbying companies and politicians to boycott the apartheid regime. Holden was also active in the Bedford Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament throughout the 1980s.

International Transport Workers’ Federation : [Part 1]

The International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) is an international trade union federation of transport workers' unions. The ITF was founded in London in 1886 by European Seafarers and Dockers’ union leaders who realised the need to organise internationally against strike breakers. The ITF represents transport workers at world level and promotes their interests through global campaigning and solidarity. It works for the advancement of fundamental human rights and trade union rights and opposes discrimination. The Reports on Africa contains reports on its activities, amongst others, in South Africa.

Justice

Justice, the British section of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) was established in 1957 in response to the arrest of people in South Africa in 1956 (which led to the Treason Trial). It sent observers to the trial. It sees itself as an expert, independent body rather than a pressure group and its main aim is to observe the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by securing fair trials, especially political trials of opponents of apartheid.

Liberation : [Part 1]

Liberation started in 1954 as the Movement for Colonial Freedom (MCF) and changed its name in 1970 to Liberation. Its mission was to work towards the political freeing of colonial peoples and political independence. It worked with trade unions and the labour party, supported the AAM, War on Want and other organisations. It did a lot of educational work, organised public meetings and conferences, and lobbied government. It dissolved in 1997.
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