Occasion - Annual conference of the African National Congress Youth League Summary - This address outlines the main threats in the world (imperialism, capitalism), in Africa (colonialism), and in South Africa (fascism). African Nationalism is seen as the response to these threats and the Youth League is seen as the guardian of this ideology. The Youth League should not continue to debate African Nationalism as an ideology but rather focus on how to mobilise the masses in a national struggle, how to respond to the Suppression of Communism Act and how to organise and discipline its members.
Occasion - Natal Peace Conference Summary - Imperial powers exploit Africa for its raw materials, its strategic value as military bases and its cheap labour. Africa is used as an instrument of war and the first casualties are its people. There is a link between the struggle for peace and the struggle against colonialism in Africa.
Occasion - Presidential address to the ANC (Transvaal) Congress Summary - The political climate has changed from the successes of the Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws of 1952 and the ANC must be prepared with a new approach and with a strong and disciplined membership. The new approach is called the "M" Plan and calls for active recruitment and action at the grassroots level. This will enable the ANC to function without calling attention to itself. There is no place in the ANC for those opposed to the "M" Plan.
Occasion - Address to the Conference of the Pan-African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa Summary - This address summaries the assistance that the international community, especially African states, has given to the freedom fighters in South Africa. It outlines the political and social situation in South Africa and the ANC's responses and move from policies of non-violence to the formation of Umkhonto we Sizwe. The people's resolve to fight is steadfast but the continued support of PAFMECA is crucial.
Occasion -Statement of the Campaign's aims Summary - This statement focuses on the support by masses of volunteers from all races for the first stages of the Defiance of Unjust Laws Campaign. It also reiterates the main aims of the Campaign: to oppose an unjust system and struggle for freedom for non-Europeans.
Extracts from the testimony by Mandela in 1960, responding as spokesman for the accused to questions from the bench, the prosecution and the defence lawyers on the content of ANC documents and question of violent intent on the part of those on trial.
Occasion - Drum asked several non-European leaders for answers to three questions concerning the planned deomstrations. These were Mr. Mandela's answers. Summary - The demonstrations will be peaceful and will include work stoppages, meetings and processions. The aim of the protest is to have grievances heard and, ideally, have a national convention to discuss a new constitution.
The statement reviewed the successes and weaknesses of the three day stay-at-home in May 1961, as well as the responses to it from journalists, students, trade unions, and from opposing groups like the Pan-Africanist Congress. It also announced the policy of non-collaboration with the government and renewed the call for an intensified international boycott and the complete isolation of South Africa.
This statement, issued after the positive response to a three day strike, announces a second phase in the fight against Verwoerd, a country-wide campaign of non-cooperation, and announces a National Convention. It also explains his decision, in accordance with the advice of the National Action Council, to carry on his political work underground rather than leaving the country or giving himself up for arrest to a government he did not recognise.
In this, the opening of the Defence case, Mandela states that his experiences in South Africa and his pride as an African underlie his actions. He details how and why Umkhonto we Sizwe was formed and what its strategies were. He also responds to the allegations of the State one by one and includes an explanation of both his ideological influences and his ideals.
Occasion: Mandela's call after the Soweto uprising of 1976 Presentation notes: This message was Mandela's call after the Soweto uprising of 1976. It was published by the ANC on 10 June 1980, with an introduction by O R Tambo, President of the ANC at the time.
Occasion - UDF Rally to celebrate Archbishop Tutu award of the Nobel Peace Prize Summary - Mandela's response to the latest offer of freedom by the South African Government. It was read on his behalf by his daughter Zindzi Mandela.
This message, from the leaders in Pollsmoor and Robben Island prisons, and signed on their behalf by Nelson Mandela, was read to the Conference and later presented to a press conference in Lusaka on 25 June 1985 by the President of the ANC, Oliver Tambo.
First public speech by Mandela in 27 years, after his release from prison. Mandela ends this address with a quote from his speech from the dock given at Rivonia trial in 1964. Note he is quoting from the prepared speech and not as he actually delivered at the trial. Both the verbatim and prepared speeches are reproduced.
Occasion: First address in Durban after his release from prison Presentation notes: Text in CAPITALS indicates where the address was delivered in Zulu. Pangas referred to in the text are machetes, widely used in Natal's sugar growing areas for cutting cane. Rev. John Langalibelele Dube, first President of the ANC and Pixley ka Isaka Seme, ANC founder member and its President between 1930-7, are referred to in paragraph 5. The "1986 Indaba solution" was a proposal for a change in the structure of regional government in Natal "Asinamali", means we have no money, and was a slogan of the 1983 campaign against rent increases in Durban townships.
Occasion - Briefing to fifth session of the OAU Ad Hoc Committee on southern Africa Summary - In a speech to the fifth session of the OAU Ad Hoc Committee on Southern Africa,Nelson Mandela dealt with the wave of violence in South Africa, and said that certain elements in South Africa were behind the rise of a movement similar to that of Renamo which had caused enormous death and destruction in Mozambique. They had incited massacres in the Transvaal, irrespective of tribal origins and political affiliations. Death squads were prowling around the country. There was also violence from the state agencies. As a result of the failure of the government to take firm action against these elements, there was a widespread demand, especially from the youth, that the people should be armed. He continued as in transcript.
Opening of 5th World Parks Congress "Benefits Beyond Boundaries" ;The 5th World Parks Congress was to have been held in 2002 but was postponed on request by the South African Government because South Africa was hosting the World Summit on Sustainable Development. Mandela, and Her Majesty, Queen Noor of Jordan were both Patrons of the Congress.
Receives Planet and Humanity Award for Planet and Humanity Award for outstanding contribution to peace and human progress at the International Geographical Union (IGU) Regional Congress and General Assembly