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The Guardian and the Observer Digital Archive

This archive will eventually contain the digital reproduction of every page, article and advert published in the Guardian (since 1821) and the Observer (since 1791). Currently it is up to 2000. A search for Rivonia Trial reveals articles from both newspapers.

Guardian

British Library Newspaper Collection

Collections includes all UK national daily and Sunday newspapers from 1801 to the present, most UK and Irish regional and local newspapers, selected newspapers from around the world in European languages, a range of UK and Irish popular periodicals, mostly published weekly and fortnightly.

These would include coverage of the Rivonia Trial.

British Library

Trades Union Congress : [Part 1]

The TUC is a federation of trade unions in the UK which started in 1868. It gave direct support to unions in South Africa and was active in boycott campaigns nationally and internationally.

Trades Union Congress : [Part 2]

The TUC is a federation of trade unions in the UK which started in 1868. It gave direct support to unions in South Africa and was active in boycott campaigns nationally and internationally.

Miners' International Federation

The Miners' International Federation was founded in Jolimont, Belgium in 1890. The MIF was affiliated with the International Labour Organisation, which organised numerous conferences on South Africa and apartheid and was active on boycott issues related to workers’ rights. In 1995 the MIF merged with the International Federation of Chemical, Energy and General Workers' Unions (ICEM).

Papers of Sir Patrick Wall

  • US UHBJL MR-RT-149
  • Collection
  • 1890 - 1992
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

Sir Patrick was Vice Chairman of the British Section of the Inter Parliamentary Union (1974 - 1984) and Chairman of the British Bahrain, British Maltese, British South Africa and British Taiwan Groups. He represented Britain at the 17th General Assembly of the United Nations in 1962. The introduction of the General Law Amendment Act, the Rivonia Trials and the United Nations conference on sanctions are some of the more significant topics on which files were accumulated in the early 1960s [DPW/48/484; 487; 486 & 488].

Wall, Patrick

Swedish Labour Movement Archives and Library [Arbetarrörelsens arkiv och bibliotek]

The Labour Movement Archives and Library hold substantial collections of the Swedish labour movement from around the 1950s. It holds records from political parties and other organisations as well. It concentrates on archives of the central and Stockholm-based local organisations. It holds a big Africa collection.

Coventry Borough Labour Party : [Part 2]

The Coventry Labour Representation Committee was founded in December 1902. The Coventry Borough Labour Party, which grew out of it and was established in 1906, expanded its influence so that by 1923 Coventry had returned its first Labour MP. The party was instrumental in establishing the Coventry Anti-apartheid Committee in 1960. The early records of the party were destroyed during the blitz on the city in 1940, and the surviving records mostly date from after the war.

Coventry Borough Labour Party : [Part 3]

The Coventry Labour Representation Committee was founded in December 1902. The Coventry Borough Labour Party, which grew out of it and was established in 1906, expanded its influence so that by 1923 Coventry had returned its first Labour MP. The party was instrumental in establishing the Coventry Anti-apartheid Committee in 1960. The early records of the party were destroyed during the blitz on the city in 1940, and the surviving records mostly date from after the war.

Coventry Borough Labour Party : [Part 1]

The Coventry Labour Representation Committee was founded in December 1902. The Coventry Borough Labour Party, which grew out of it and was established in 1906, expanded its influence so that by 1923 Coventry had returned its first Labour MP. The party was instrumental in establishing the Coventry Anti-apartheid Committee in 1960. The early records of the party were destroyed during the blitz on the city in 1940, and the surviving records mostly date from after the war.

Papers of Stephen Clingman Relating to Bram Fischer

The papers were collected by Stephen Clingman while researching his biography entitled "Bram Fischer: Afrikaner Revolutionary" (1998). They are mainly photocopies of correspondence and newspaper cuttings.

The Rivonia Trial material appears in section relating to legal and political cases in which Bram Fischer was involved (boxes 20-21), Shelfmark: MSS. Afr. S. 2444 / 21, 1 box (285 folios):
fols. 1-157) the Rivonia Trial (1963-6). Includes newspaper cuttings and typescripts entitled:
-Operation Mayibuye'
-'The Voice of the African National Congress'
-'A Call To The Youth' (issued by the Johannesburg District of the South African Communist Party)

Clingman, Stephen

Richard Albert Etheridge

Born in 1909 in Birmingham, Richard Albert Etheridge had a lifelong involvement with the Amalgamated Engineering Union. In 1940 he started work at the Austin Motor Co.'s Longbridge plant, and was elected shop steward in the following year. He was also elected secretary of the Austin AEU Shop Stewards' Committee. In 1946, Etheridge was elected to the AEU's Birmingham District Committee, remaining a member until 1965 when he was elected President of the newly-created Birmingham West District, a post he held until 1975. In 1963, and again from 1966 to 1974, he was elected an AEU to the annual Trades Union Congress. A lifelong supporter of the Communist Party, he helped formulate Party policy with regard to the motor industry, and stood as a candidate in the 1950 general election. From 1961 to 1973, Etheridge was a member of the Party's Executive Committee. He died in 1985.

John de Courcy Ireland

John de Courcy Ireland was, amongst others, Secretary of the Central Branch of the Labour Party, and was involved in numerous progressive organisations. He had a distinguished and lifelong commitment to Irish and international maritime history and affairs, to radical politics and to humanism. He and his wife, Betty, were affiliated with The Irish Anti-Apartheid Movement. He was also a founding member of the Irish Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND).

Hannah Stanton

Hannah Stanton was a missionary and anti-apartheid activist who worked in South Africa and the UK. Following the increased violence and activities of the South African police, culminating in the Sharpeville Massacre of 21 March 1960, she found herself under surveillance. On 30 March 1960 she was arrested and held without charge, and without access to a lawyer until 21 May 1960, when she was deported to the UK. During this time she was held at Pretoria Central Gaol, where she shared a cell with Helen Joseph. After her deportation she became involved in various anti-apartheid campaigns, including those of the AAM.

Archbishop Trevor Huddleston

Trevor Huddleston collection includes correspondence on Nelson Mandela, speeches, addresses, newspaper cuttings , Free Mandela Campaigns and 1990 concert . Celebration of the Nelson Mandela's 70th birthday held at Wembley Stadium. Includes correspondence and papers relating to a service celebrating the release of Nelson Mandela (broadcast February 1990).
Audio visual collection, metering on the inauguration of Nelson Mandela. BBC program on Nelson Mandela as president of South Africa.

Huddleston, Trevor

International Labour Organisation

The ILO is a specialised agency of the UN, and was founded in 1919 to work for the betterment of people in their place of work under conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. It organised numerous conferences on South Africa and apartheid and was active on boycott issues related to workers’ rights.

African National Congress Papers

The collection of the African National Congress includes the Defiance Campaign, the Treason trial. ANC leaders in exile and in prison.

African National Congress (ANC)

War Resisters’ International

The WRI was established in 1921 as an organisation against war. Its members refuse to support war or preparations for war in various forms, such as refusing to engage in military service, pay taxes to support the military, etc. It is fundamentally committed to nonviolent action as a form of social struggle. WRI has provided training in nonviolence and held a number of international conferences. WRI was involved with solidarity work with the End Conscription Campaign and the Conscientious Objectors Support Group, which was formally affiliated with WRI.

Ruth First Papers

The personal papers of Ruth First
The collection is made up of background material, correspondence and reviews concerning "No Easy Walk to Freedom" edited by Ruth First. Printed copies of Nelson Mandela’s speech at the Rivonia Trial. Drafts of sections of the book, and a typescript of Mary Benson’s statement before the UN Special Committee on Apartheid in 1964, with handwritten alterations. Correspondence, mainly between Ruth First and Heinemann Publishers, as well as clippings of newspaper reviews.
Material on political detention between 1963 and 1970, including a copy of the 1963 Detention Act, a radio script by Mary Benson entitled "Nelson Mandela and the Rivonia Trial," and notes produced by Ruth First. Press releases and conference papers concerning the Symposium on the exploitation of Blacks in South Africa and Namibia, organized by the United Nations in 1978, with observances of the 60th birthday of Nelson Mandela.
Transcripts of interviews with Robben Island political prisoners. Correspondence from friends and acquaintances, and materials from South African newspapers concerning the Rivonia Trial.

First, Ruth

Karel Roskam : [Part 1]

Karel Roskam was a radio journalist with the progressive broadcaster Vara. He was also a member of Omroep voor Radio Freedom. He produced numerous radio programmes and interviewed many people during the period 1961-1992.

Karel Roskam : [Part 2]

Karel Roskam was a radio journalist with the progressive broadcaster Vara. He was also a member of Omroep voor Radio Freedom. He produced numerous radio programmes and interviewed many people during the period 1961-1992.

Dutch Communist Party [Communistische Partij Nederland]

The CPN was founded in 1935 and existed till 1991 when it merged with other political parties. The Working Group South Africa of the Party organised its solidarity work with South Africa and maintained contacts with the national AAMs and international solidarity organisations.

Norwegian People’s Aid [Norsk Folkehjelp]

The NPA was formed in 1939 as a humanitarian organisation with emergency relief and development aid programmes. It was the voluntary organisation of the trade union movement. It started to support the liberation movements in Southern Africa financially during the 1970s and became the main channel for Norwegian assistance to the ANC.

Anthony Sampson

Papers of Anthony Sampson has a section on "Materials relating to Mandela: The authorised biography.'' This material comprises of research notes made by Sampson it ranges from photocopies and papers, mainly relating to Nelson Mandela’s life. The collection also has audio visual material.

Sampson, Anthony

Norwegian Church Aid [Kirkens Nødhjelp]

The NCA is a Christian emergency relief and development aid organisation. It was formed after World War II, when it started its work in Europe. In the 1970s it expanded its work to the rest of the world. It has supported many projects in Southern Africa, mainly through church organisations. The South African Council of Churches was one of its main collaborators, and channelled funds to the liberation movement inside South Africa.

Mary Benson Papers

  • GB ULSOAS MR-RT-147
  • Collection
  • 1946 - 1974
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

The sections of the collection related to the Rivonia Trial are press cuttings concerning political protest, especially the Treason and Rivonia Trials c 1958-1962. Related collection also at Institute of Commonwealth Studies, London University.

Benson, Mary

Ruth First Papers

The collection includes personal material of First and her immediate family such as correspondence and financial records, papers relating to First's work as a journalist in South Africa, as a university lecturer, an anti-apartheid activist, and as an author and editor of numerous books and articles on Africa and other political topics. Also included are research papers and printed material relating to First and her family, collected both during her lifetime and after her death.

Material related to the Rivonia Trial:
-Background material, correspondence and reviews concerning "No Easy Walk to Freedom," edited by Ruth First. Includes printed copies of Nelson Mandela’s speech at the Rivonia Trial, drafts of sections of the book, and a typescript of Mary Benson’s statement before the UN Special Committee on Apartheid in 1964, with handwritten alterations. Also includes correspondence, mainly between Ruth First and Heinemann Publishers, as well as clippings of newspaper reviews (RF/1/6/2)
-ANC publications includes introductory pamphlets on the ANC and the Rivonia trial, copies of magazines: Sechaba and Mayibuye.(RF/1/17/2/3)
-Materials on political detentions between 1963 and 1970, including a copy of the 1963 Detention Act, a radio script by Mary Benson entitled "Nelson Mandela and the Rivonia Trial," and notes produced by First (RF/1/18/2)
- Transcripts of interviews with Robben Island political prisoners (RF/1/18/1).
-Newspaper cuttings from both British and South African newspapers, mainly covering issues relating to politics in South Africa including the Rivonia Trial (RF/1/19)
-Correspondence (Feb 1964-Aug 1965) covering subjects such as the Rivonia Trial and First's exile to Britain. Correspondents include Govan Mbeki, Molly Bernstein and Julius Lewin (RF/2/1/2).

The collection is on indefinite loan to the Institute of Commonwealth Studies and remains the property of the Ruth First Memorial Trust.

First, Ruth

Women’s Union of the Dutch Labour Party [Vrouwenbond Partij van de Arbeid] : [Part 2]

The Women’s Union started its activities in 1946 as the women’s union of the political party PvdA. In 1969 the Women's Union changed its name to Women's Contact. It was renamed the Red Women (Rooie Vrouwen) in 1975. They participated in campaigns of the national AAMs as well as Amnesty International Netherlands.

Commission of the Churches on International Affairs - World Council of Churches

The CCIA started to operate in 1946 and is comprised of thirty people nominated by churches and regional ecumenical organisations to advise the World Council of Churches (WCC) in international affairs. It focuses on peace-making and peaceful resolution of conflicts, militarism, disarmament and arms control. After 1975, a Human Rights Advisory Group was formed within the CCIA to advise on policy in this area. The scope of the organisation was much extended in 2006, when it merged with three other WCC advisory bodies.

Women’s Union of the Dutch Labour Party [Vrouwenbond Partij van de Arbeid] : [Part 1]

The Women’s Union started its activities in 1946 as the women’s union of the political party PvdA. In 1969 the Women's Union changed its name to Women's Contact. It was renamed the Red Women (Rooie Vrouwen) in 1975. They participated in campaigns of the national AAMs as well as Amnesty International Netherlands.

Church of Sweden Aid : Swedish National Committee of the Lutheran World Federation [Lutherhjälpen]

This Committee was formed in 1947 to organise relief work in Europe after World War II. It started to include Southern Africa in its operations from around 1960. It is one of the biggest fund raising agencies for relief work and development aid. It supported the liberation movements and the SACC directly and lobbied for divestments.

Council on Ecumenical and International Relations, Church of Norway [Mellomkirkelig råd] : [Part 1]

The Council of the Church of Norway, the official Norwegian church, became involved in anti-apartheid issues through their contacts with churches in South Africa around 1948. It worked especially with the South African Council of Churches and the Christian Institute. South Africa became the central focus for the Church of Norway’s international work. It gave a lot of direct, financial support as well.

Council on Ecumenical and International Relations, Church of Norway [Mellomkirkelig råd] : [Part 2]

The Council of the Church of Norway, the official Norwegian church, became involved in anti-apartheid issues through their contacts with churches in South Africa around 1948. It worked especially with the South African Council of Churches and the Christian Institute. South Africa became the central focus for the Church of Norway’s international work. It gave a lot of direct, financial support as well.

Mary Benson Papers

Mainly correspondence between Benson and fellow South African activists and large amounts of newspaper cuttings collected by Benson relating to South Africa and the struggle against Apartheid.

Records related to the Rivonia Trial:
-Nelson Mandela’s statement from the dock at the Rivonia Trial (ICS6/5/3)
-Elias Motsoaledi's statement (ICS6/5/7)
- Correspondence, reports and statements about the treatment of political prisoners in South Africa, including reports by the International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) and Amnesty International
- Papers related to Nelson Mandela’s imprisonment, collected by Benson when writing her biography of Mandela, "Nelson Mandela: the Man and the Movement."
- Correspondence between Mandela and Mary Benson. There is also correspondence between Benson and others, mainly related to Mandela and campaigns for his release from prison. Correspondents include Helen Suzman, Elinor Birley, Hilda Bernstein, Oliver Tambo, Winnie Mandela, Denis Healey and Ismail Ayob.
- Typed notes on Mandela and other prisoner
-News clippings concerning Mandela, mainly from British newspapers. Subjects covered in particular detail include the Rivonia Trial and campaigns for Mandela's release (ICS6/8)

Benson, Mary

Movement Against Racism and for Friendship Among Peoples [Mouvement Contre le Racisme et pour l'Amitié entre les Peuples]

MRAP was established in 1941 under the name Mouvement National Contre le Racisme (National Movement Against Racism) as a general anti-racism organisation. It changed its name to MRAP in 1949. It worked with other national and international organisations on anti-apartheid campaigns.

ICFTU Archives

Working papers of The International Confederation of Trade Unions. Rivonia Trial related records:
4873 Correspondence concerning the Rivonia trial. 1963-1965. 1 folder.
4874-4875 Correspondence concerning the Treason Trials. Including correspondence with the South Africa Defence and Aid Fund. 1956-1969. 2 folders.
48741956-1962. 48751963-1969.

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

The ICFTU was an international trade union founded in London in 1949 by unions opposing growing communist control of the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). Its activities on South Africa were organised through the Coordination Committee on Southern Africa and the International Solidarity Fund Committee. ICFTU was dissolved in 2006 when it merged with the World Confederation of Labour (WCL) to form the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC).

Papers of Justice ( British Section of the International Commission of Jurists)

Country files compiled by Tom Sargant arranged by country and reflecting related aspect of justice and law in the British colonies and dependent territories. Events in South Africa are covered in some depth over three decades and the most file focuses on the Rivonia trial and opponents of Apartheid. The records detail a large proportion of the ANC leadership detained, including its president , Chief Albert Luthuli, Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu as well as other opponents of Apartheid such as Helen Joseph the secretary of the South African Women's Federation. Also includes schedule of the charges faced by the defendants in the first treason trail.

Sargant, Tom

Bernie Grant

Bernie Grant collection documents the concerns of numerous oppressed peoples of and diverse communities the material includes an official invitation and programme to the inauguration of Nelson Mandela, footage and newspaper articles.

Grant, Bernie

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

The UNHCR is the UN agency for the protection and care of refugees. It started to operate in 1950, based on the Geneva Refugee Convention. Besides playing a role in improving the status of refugees through international agreements and measures at national level, it also works at a practical level. It supported various anti-apartheid liberation movements.

Norwegian Labour Movement: Press Clippings Collection

  • NO NLMAL MR-RT-034
  • Collection
  • 1952 - 1965
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

Collection of news clippings, mostly in Norwegian, that include:
-Historical profiles of Mandela
-Rivonia Trial, with references to Mandela and Percy Yutar (1964), and reports on Mandela and others being found guilty on charges of sabotage
-Telegram sent to Verwoerd by 21 Norwegian youth organisations, in protest against the life sentences imposed on Mandela and other prisoners
-Reactions to the Rivonia Trial judgement by the Foreign Minister of Great Britain, Richard Butler, as well as a statement by Verwoerd that Mandela and his men are in the category of spies, and that they have a communist plan to take over the world

Untitled

Norwegian Labour Movement Archives and Library: Press Clippings Collection

Collection of news clippings, mostly in Norwegian, that covers the following:
Arrests in South Africa during the 1952 Defiance Campaign. The 1956 treason trial. Nelson Mandela in hiding as the "Black Pimpernel" (1964). Historical profiles of Nelson Mandela. The Rivonia Trial, with references to Nelson Mandela and Percy Yutar (1964), and reports on Nelson Mandela and others found guilty on charges of sabotage. A telegram sent to Verwoerd by 21 Norwegian youth organisations, in protest against the life sentences imposed on Nelson Mandela and other prisoners. Reactions to the Rivonia Trial verdict by the Foreign Minister of Great Britain, Richard Butler, as well as a statement by Verwoerd that Nelson Mandela and his men are in the category of spies, and that they have a communist plan to take over the world. The arrest of Nelson Mandela's advocate, Bram Fischer.
Zenani Mandela's visit to Oslo in 1985, with biographical profiles of Nelson Mandela.

Norwegian Labour Movement Archives and Library

Africa Bureau : [Part 1]

The Africa Bureau was set up in 1952 by, amongst others, Mary Benson and Rev. Michael Scott, and operated until 1978. It was active in the area of international sanctions and worked with the AAM in the 1960s. It later split into the Africa Bureau and Africa Educational Trust.

Africa Bureau : [Part 2]

The Africa Bureau was set up in 1952 by, amongst others, Mary Benson and Rev. Michael Scott, and operated until 1978. It was active in the area of international sanctions and worked with the AAM in the 1960s. It later split into the Africa Bureau and Africa Educational Trust.

South African Trials

Transcripts of political cases.
Peripherally related to the Rivonia Trial is File 4: Inquest to establish cause of death of Looksmart Ngudle. It contains: transcript of complete proceedings. Pretoria, 21st Oct. 1963 - 23rd Dec. 1963. Looksmart Ngudle, a ninety-day detainee held under the Sabotage Act, was found dead, hanging in his cell at Pretoria Central Police Station, on September 5th, after 16 days in detention. He had been arrested in Cape Town and was found in possession of a firearm and some African National Congress leaflets. The four witnesses, held at the same time as Ngudle, said when cross-examined by the Defence that they had been tortured with electric shocks and severe beatings. One said that he was forced to sign a statement claiming that Ngudle was an important Umkonto we Sizwe leader (Ngudle was named in the Rivonia Trial as a co-conspirator). Each of the witnesses stated that Ngudle had told them that he was being tortured. The state claimed that Ngudle hanged himself because he had betrayed his comrades and had been told that he was going to be sentenced to death anyway. Further evidence of torture was ruled irrelevant: the court refused to accept the Defence's contention that torture (which the police denied) was a contributing factor to Ngudle's suicide. The hearing was adjourned.

Untitled

Archive of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM)

Archive of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM) and predecessor material including the Boycott Movement. Material directly related to the Rivonia Trial includes:
O.7 Political Prisoners Campaigns, 1956-95:
-O.7.1.b Correspondence, 1962-70: Correspondence concerning the Rivonia trialists and other condemned South African leaders, 1964 (MSS AAM 1791)
-O.7.5.e General files, 1961-95: Information on the Rivonia trial and trialists, 1963-90 (MSS AAM 1953)

W.2 African National Congress (ANC) posters, 1978-95:
'We salute our leaders. Sentenced to life imprisonment. Rivonia 1963. Mandela, Sisulu, Mbeki, Mhlaba, Motsoaledi, Mlangeni, Kathrada, Goldberg.' 1980s? Mainly black and white; photographs (MSS AAM 2512/2/4), 1 poster

Rivonia Trial references might also appear in other parts of this collection for example, the campaigns the AAM took relating to the Trial might appear in the minutes of the Executive Committee and in annual reports.

British Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM)

NIZA Photograph Collection

An album of photographs of Nelson Mandela, including:
Portrait photographs of Nelson Mandela, many of which were taken by Eli Weinberg. There are photographs with Kaiser Matanzima, and of Nelson Mandela together with his son, Thembekile, as well as Nelson and Winnie Mandela on their wedding day. Includes photographs of Nelson Mandela wearing traditional beads, Mandela in boxing gear, at his law office, burning his pass, and in disguise while in hiding from the police as the "Black Pimpernel." (1950s - 1960s). Nelson Mandela after his acquittal at the treason trial, with Essop Pahad in the background. Nelson Mandela addressing the All-in-Africa Conference in Pietermaritzburg in 1961. Photographs are by Joe Gqabi. Photographs of Nelson Mandela with military officers in Algiers, and with Oliver Tambo in Addis Ababa, during his secret Africa trip in 1962. Nelson Mandela in Parliament Square, London, 1962. Photographs by Mary Benson. Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu on Robben Island in 1966.The concert in celebration of Mandela's 70th birthday. The 1988 artist's impression of Nelson Mandela.
Nelson Mandela's release from prison, including a scene of him addressing a mass gathering in Cape Town on the day of his release from prison. Also featured in these photographs are Winnie Mandela, Walter Sisulu and Cyril Ramaphosa. Photographers include Yunus Mohamed. Post-release portraits, some that originates from the International Defence and Aid Fund. Photographers include Pieter Boersma and Piet den Blanken. Nelson Mandela addressing meetings on his visit to the Netherlands in June 1990. Also featured in these photographs are Winnie Mandela and Thabo Mbeki. Photographers include Jan Stegeman, Pieter Boersma and Kadir van Lohuizen. Nelson Mandela being awarded an honorary doctorate at the University of the Western Cape. Featured in the photographs are Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Professor Jaap Durand and Professor Stanley Ridge. Photographs are by Rashid Lombard. Nelson Mandela alongside a mural in Cape Town. Photograph by the Cape Argus. Nelson Mandela on the platform with Tokyo Sexwale and others at an ANC election mass meeting held at the Kwamazizi Stadium, 12 March 1994. Photographs are by B. Bohler. Photographs of Winnie and Zindzi Mandela, including Winnie in traditional dress, her attendance of political funerals in South Africa in 1985, and Zindzi addressing the crowd at a mass gathering at Jabulani Stadium in 1985. Photographers include Alf Kumalo and Gideon Mendell.

Anti-Apartheid Beweging Nederland

Justice

Justice, the British section of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) was established in 1957 in response to the arrest of people in South Africa in 1956 (which led to the Treason Trial). It sent observers to the trial. It sees itself as an expert, independent body rather than a pressure group and its main aim is to observe the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by securing fair trials, especially political trials of opponents of apartheid.

European Economic Community

The European Economic Community was established in 1957 as a customs union towards the unification of Europe. Since 1993 it operates as the European Union - a political and economic union of European countries. The EEC was important with respect to sanctions against South Africa. The organisation was a rallying point for European anti-apartheid organisations to act against South Africa. Amongst other, it imposed a ban on trade and investments by member states in 1986.

Africa Educational Trust

The Africa Educational Trust (AET) was founded in 1958. Originally it was part of the Africa Bureau, which later split into the Africa Bureau and Africa Educational and Publication Trust. The main aim was to help exiles and refugees with their education.

British Defence and Aid Fund Southern Africa : [Part 1]

BDAF was the forerunner of the International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF). It started life as an initiative of Canon Collins to merge all the Christian Aid funds for South Africa sometime between 1958 and 1961. Its role was to raise funds for the legal defence of political prisoners, and for their families, and later to raise public consciousness in the UK for the international organisation.

British Defence and Aid Fund Southern Africa : [Part 2]

BDAF was the forerunner of the International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF). It started life as an initiative of Canon Collins to merge all the Christian Aid funds for South Africa sometime between 1958 and 1961. Its role was to raise funds for the legal defence of political prisoners, and for their families, and later to raise public consciousness in the UK for the international organisation.

Criminal Court Case No. 253/1963 (State Versus N Mandela and Others)

The Rivonia Trial was the first time that the state used its powers under the Acts, that banned the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) in 1960, to arrest and prosecute the top leadership structure of the largest internal anti-apartheid organisation involved in the struggle for a democratic South Africa. This trial gave Nelson Mandela the opportunity to proclaim the aim and goal of the ANC from the dock to the public at large. The court case led to the imprisonment of leaders such as Nelson Mandela on Robben Island and other prisons until their release in 1990.

National Archives and Record Service of South Africa (NARSSA)

Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 3]

The AAM started in 1959 under the name The Boycott Movement Committee. It changed its name to AAM in 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre to become a permanent organisation. It grew into one of the biggest anti-apartheid organisations in the world with committees covering specific subjects and branches all over the UK. It was a member of the European Liaison Group. It was often the fore-runner and initiator of international campaigns and worked closely with the ANC and UN agencies. It dissolved itself in 1995 to continue as Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 4]

The AAM started in 1959 under the name The Boycott Movement Committee. It changed its name to AAM in 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre to become a permanent organisation. It grew into one of the biggest anti-apartheid organisations in the world with committees covering specific subjects and branches all over the UK. It was a member of the European Liaison Group. It was often the fore-runner and initiator of international campaigns and worked closely with the ANC and UN agencies. It dissolved itself in 1995 to continue as Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

South African Political Papers of His Honour Judge Kellock

The material includes fragments of the Rivonia Trial Transcript concerning the details of the charges; news sheets and press releases about the Rivonia Trial; a statement by Kellock on the Trial; information sheets on South African legislation; minutes and circulars from the World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners. Other material includes Anti-Apartheid Movement correspondence, and national and executive committee meeting minutes for 1965 - 1966; correspondence relating to the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee and its officials; and papers relating to the Nyasaland emergency of 1959.

Judge Kellock, (formerly Mr. Thomas Oslaf Kellock, Q.C.) was Chairman of the National Committee of the Anti-Apartheid Movement in Britain from 1963-65. This group of papers is mostly concerned with the period when Mr. Kellock was sent to South Africa by Christian Action to act as an observer for the Defence and Aid Fund at the Rivonia Trial in 1964.

Kellock, Thomas Oslaf

Collectie Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika

Correspondence, memoranda, campaign materials and lists. The collection includes:
-Correspondence between the Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika and the African National Congress (ANC) London office concerning the Rivonia Trial and pressure being placed on the Dutch government to condemn the trial.
-Campaigns for the release of the Rivonia Trialists, and about 5000 political prisoners in South Africa.

Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika

Comite' Zuid-Afrika

Correspondence, memoranda, campaign materials and lists. The collection includes:
Correspondence between the Comite Zuid-Afrika and the African National Congress (ANC) London office concerning the Rivonia Trial and pressure being placed on the Dutch government to condemn the trial. Campaigns for the release of the Rivonia Trialists, and about 5000 political prisoners in South Africa. Open letter by the Anti-apartheid Movement, soliciting support from abroad for those under house arrest in South Africa, and encouraging that letters of support is sent to Nelson Mandela and Robert Sobukwe at Pretoria Central Prison (1962).
The collection also includes:
References to the Freedom Charter and the Congress of the People. List of South Africans under house arrest, together with the conditions of their five-year banning orders. They include Helen Joseph, Ahmed Kathrada, Walter Sisulu, Jack and Rica Hodgson, Jack Tarshish, Brian and Sonia Bunting, Roley Arenstein, Michael Harmel, Moses Kotane, Lionel Bernstein, Alfred Nzo, Thomas Nkobi, MacDonald Maseko, Duma Nokwe, Cecil Williams and Alex La Guma. Correspondence from Karel Roskam to Christian Action concerning the raising of funds in the Netherlands for the Defence and Aid Fund set up by Canon Collins (1959 - 1960).

Comite Zuid-Afrika

Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 1]

The AAM started in 1959 under the name The Boycott Movement Committee. It changed its name to AAM in 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre to become a permanent organisation. It grew into one of the biggest anti-apartheid organisations in the world with committees covering specific subjects and branches all over the UK. It was a member of the European Liaison Group. It was often the fore-runner and initiator of international campaigns and worked closely with the ANC and UN agencies. It dissolved itself in 1995 to continue as Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 2]

The AAM started in 1959 under the name The Boycott Movement Committee. It changed its name to AAM in 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre to become a permanent organisation. It grew into one of the biggest anti-apartheid organisations in the world with committees covering specific subjects and branches all over the UK. It was a member of the European Liaison Group. It was often the fore-runner and initiator of international campaigns and worked closely with the ANC and UN agencies. It dissolved itself in 1995 to continue as Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

Arrest of Nelson Mandela

Some British Foreign office documents on the arrest of Nelson Mandela in August 1962 and the death of the Secretary- General of the UN, Dag Hammerskjold on 16 October 1961, the file also includes military sales to South Africa -1966 tracking station defense.

Commonwealth Pressure Groups, Trade Unions and Political Parties Materials

The Institute of Commonwealth Studies at the University of London has three big collections covering pressure groups, trade unions and political parties within the Commonwealth. The collections started in 1960 and have a special emphasis on primary materials. Besides printed materials, the collections also contain posters, badges, and stickers. Anti-apartheid activities are covered in the collections.

Norwegian Students’ and Academics’ International Assistance Fund [Studentenes og Akademikernes Internasjonale Hjelpefond] : [Part 1]

SAIH was established in 1961 and worked with other NGOs and institutions to support projects in Africa and Latin America. It organised local universities and colleges around educational projects and supported many projects from the liberation movements. A substantial amount of their funding came directly from students’ contributions.

Swedish South Africa Committee [Svenska Sydafrikakommittén]

The SSAC was formed in 1961 as an umbrella organisation of NGOs to start campaigning for a consumer boycott of South African products. It pressured the Swedish government to apply sanctions and later supported the ANC’s armed struggle. The committee dominated the anti-apartheid work in Sweden during the 1960s but its activities decreased as other organisations became more active.

Mandela First Television Interview

Nelson Mandela's first television interview on the 21- 6- 1961. Footage on some black workers defying stay away strike call by Nelson Mandela and going to work.

Naidoo, Neville

Amnesty International : International Secretariat : [Part 1]

Amnesty International was founded in 1961 in London as an independent organisation to mobilise public opinion in defence of people who are imprisoned because their ideas are unacceptable to the government in their country. One of their areas of work is campaigning for the release of political prisoners and actions against torture.

Non-Aligned Movement

The Non-Aligned Movement was founded in Belgrade in 1961 by countries not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. It focused on national struggles for independence, eradication of poverty and economic development. It supported the liberation movements and took an active stance against apartheid. As of 2012, the movement has 120 members and 17 observer countries.

Amnesty International : International Secretariat : [Part 3]

Amnesty International was founded in 1961 in London as an independent organisation to mobilise public opinion in defence of people who are imprisoned because their ideas are unacceptable to the government in their country. One of their areas of work is campaigning for the release of political prisoners and actions against torture.

Amnesty International : International Secretariat : [Part 4]

Amnesty International was founded in 1961 in London as an independent organisation to mobilise public opinion in defence of people who are imprisoned because their ideas are unacceptable to the government in their country. One of their areas of work is campaigning for the release of political prisoners and actions against torture.

Angola Comité

The Angola Comité was established in 1961 to support the freedom struggle in Angola, later expanding its focus to include the whole of Southern Africa. In 1976, following the end of Portuguese colonialism, the Angola Comité was renamed the Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika (KZA) (known in English as the Holland Committee on Southern Africa). KZA was involved in campaigns to isolate South Africa including campaigns for sanctions and divestment and against banks making loans to South Africa. With another Dutch organization, Werkgroep Kairos (Working Group Kairos/ Stichting Kairos), the KZA was active in the Shell boycott campaign. It also campaigned in support of the sports boycott of apartheid South Africa. The KZA had an important success in 1985 when it forced the banks to stop selling the South African gold coin, the Krugerrand. After the end of apartheid, the KZA, the Anti-Apartheids Beweging Nederland (Dutch Anti-Apartheid Movement) and the Eduardo Mondlane Stichting (Eduardo Mondlane Foundation) established the Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa (NiZA). In 2007 NiZA merged with ActionAid, and in 2012 became operational as ActionAid Netherlands.

Amnesty International

A photocopy of a letter by Nelson Mandela to Amnesty International.

Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla

National Archives United Kingdom

The trial and sentencing of Constable Johannes Arnoldus Greef for his role on helping Arthur Goldreich to escape. Newspaper article. Report on the substance of O.R. Tambo to the U.N. special committee about people accused of sabotage . Report 9 October 1963. Report on the proceedings of the Rivonia trial. Press reports. 222 Acts of sabotage between 10 August 1961 and 1963. Article from the Star (9 October 1963). Moves to raise Pretoria trial issue at U.N. Article from the Star ( 10 October 1963). Conversation with Bram Fischer about the Rivonia trial. Letter from Durossil to the Foreign Office, London ( 19 October 1963). De Wet quashed indictment "The Rivonia trial collapses.
Articles from the Rand Daily Mail. ( 30 October 1963)

Rand Daily Mail

Norwegian Students’ and Academics’ International Assistance Fund

SAIH was established in 1961 and worked with other NGOs and institutions to support projects in Africa and Latin America. It organised local universities and colleges around educational projects and supported many projects from the liberation movements. A substantial amount of their funding came directly from students’ contributions.

Amnesty International : International Secretariat : [Part 2]

Amnesty International was founded in 1961 in London as an independent organisation to mobilise public opinion in defence of people who are imprisoned because their ideas are unacceptable to the government in their country. One of their areas of work is campaigning for the release of political prisoners and actions against torture.

Anti-Apartheid Movement Netherlands [Anti-Apartheids Beweging Nederland] : [Part 2]

The AABN operated from 1961 till 1994 and was one of the major organisations in the Netherlands. It continued the work of the Comité Zuid-Afrika (CZA) and its solidarity with the liberation movements was unconditional. Besides campaigns focusing on boycott activities and political prisoners, it also organised grass roots based activities with practical solidarity through its committees dealing with education, women, culture, etc. It was instrumental in the formation of several specialist organisations. It was part of the Liaison Group. The AABN stopped operating in 1994 and continued as the Institute on Southern Africa (IZA) and merged with the KZA and the EMS in 1997 to form the Netherlands Institute on Southern Africa (NIZA). Since September 2007 NIZA has been associated with ActionAid International and is now operating as ActionAid.

Mandela Trials Papers

Photocopies of papers collected by Joel Joffe, lawyer acting for Nelson Mandela, relating to Nelson Mandela's trial in Pretoria 1962 and the Rivonia Trial (1963-1964) The collection includes Nelson Mandela's application to have the Pretoria trial postponed, October 1962; Nelson Mandela's address to the court in mitigation of the sentence of five years imprisonment detailing his political commitment and activities in the African National Congress (ANC), November1962; copy of the indictment in the Rivonia trial, initial statement made by Nelson Mandela to his lawyers, giving details of his early life, notes by Nelson Mandela on his life and his association; copy of Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock, signed by Nelson Mandela referring to an Imbizo.

Joffe, Joel

National Archives United Kingdom

Terrorism trial of Essop et al. Report ( 1972)
Arrest of Moumbaris et al- Report (1972)
Ahmed Timol inquest - Report (1972)
Release from Robben Island of M.D. Naidoo after having served his five-year sentence- Report (1972) Winnie Mandela breaking banning orders- Correspondence ( 28 April 1972) Mrs. Winnie Mandela' s brother in law had bought her groceries for her, when she went to the door to fetch them she was arrested for contravening her banning order : Mrs. Mandela wins appeal over grocery list case. Newspaper article from The Time London ( 26 April 1976).Prisoners study privileged. Correspondence from Lord Lothian to Dennis Healy (25 February 1972)
South Africa n government refusal to give Shantie Naidoo ' a passport to leave the country and refers it her refusal to testify against Winnie Mandela. Report from the U. N. Unit on Apartheid ( January 1972) Refusal for permission to study. Correspondence from the Commissioner of Prisons (Steyn) to the British Ambassador Arthur Shelley ( February 1972)

Arrivals for the Mandela Trial

Mr. Nelson Mandela former Transvaal president of the banned African National Congress, appeared in court on charges of incitement and leaving South Africa illegally. The trial transferred from Johannesburg to Pretoria on security grounds. The trial was adjourned for a week to give Mr. Mandela time to appoint defense counsel. Mr Mandela was remanded in custody. Mr Mandela was dressed in tribal dress. Attending the trial was his wife, Mrs. Winnie Mandela and his sister, Ms Leabi Mandela. The courtroom packed with supporters of Mr. Mandela, Mr Mandela that his counsel was unable to appear for him because he was confined to Johannesburg under the suppression of Communism act. Mr. Mandela said the sudden transfer of the trial to Pretoria had deprived him of his attorney services. 17 October 1962

Newspaper Clippings

Newspaper articles from The Irish Times, The Guardian, New York Herald Tribune reporting on the Rivonia or sabotage trial of 1962-1964. Includes newspaper clippings on the raids, the death and burial of Albert Luthuli in 1967.

National Archives United Kingdom

Mr. Kawawa, the vice president of Tanganyika appeals for Nelson Mandela's release. Tanganyika Standard (11 August 1962) Nelson Mandela's trial French newspaper article. Extracts from Nelson Mandela's address to the court and probably a posed photograph of him n suit (by Michael Peto). Article from the Observer (18 November 1962). Conversation with Mr. Blom-Cooper of Amnesty about Nelson Mandela's trial. Report ( 29 November 1962). Correspondence to the British M.P. on concerns about Nelson Mandela's trial and saying that the process is fair. Correspondence. Nelson Mandela's trial Report (16 October 1962. Nelson Mandela's sentencing. Report ( 9 November 1962)

National Archives (United Kingdom)

Mandela Trials Papers

Photocopies of papers collected by Joel Joffe, lawyer acting for Nelson Mandela, relating to Mandela's trial in Pretoria (1962) and the Rivonia Trial (1963-1964); including Mandela's application to have the Pretoria trial postponed, October 1962; Mandela's address to the court in mitigation of the sentence of five years imprisonment, detailing his political commitment and activities in the African National Congress (ANC), November 1962; copy of the indictment in the Rivonia Trial, initial statement made by Mandela to his lawyers, giving details of his early life; notes by Mandela on his life and ANC association; copy of Mandela's statement from the dock, signed by Mandela, manuscript notes by Mandela to use if he were sentenced to death, and manuscript notes by Mandela referring to the tribal council called Imbizo.

Joffe, Joel

National Archives United Kingdom

Nelson Mandela's life sentence
Reactions various 1963. Foreign reaction to the Rivonia trial judgment and sentences. Statement in parliament by H.F. Verwoerd (16 June 1964). Rivonia trial judgment ( includes newspaper cuttings). Correspondence ( 16 June 1964)
Rivonia trial sentence Summary from press articles (1964)
Question whether the British government should ask the South African government to reduce the life sentences handed down in the Rivonia trial.
Correspondence ( 26 June 1964)
Libyan embassy in London will ask the UK secretary of state to intervene and have the Rivonia trial life sentences reduced.
Report ( 15 June 1964) The U.S. state department will not ask for a reduction in the Rivonia trial.
Correspondence Internal British foreign office (27 June 1964) Secretary of the state talking about the RivoniaSpeech to the House of Commons ( July 1964) The Canadian Ambassador asks that the Rivonia trial sentences be reduced
Report (22 July 1964) Rivonia trial accused decide not to appeal Report (27 July 1964)
The German government approaches South Africa about the Rivonia trial sentences
Report ( 2 September 1964) Book on Rivonia trial by Judge De Villiers
Report (24 September 1964)

National Archives United Kingdom

Closing case against Nelson Mandela (includes information that Mr. L.J. Blom-Cooper from Amnesty saw the magistrate leaving for lunch with the Security Branch in their car. This led to Nelson Mandela to call the magistrate to recuse himself from the trial but he refused. Confidential report from the British embassy. ( 26 October1962). Nelson Mandela's trial. Report from British embassy. Arrest of Nelson Mandela (including biographical details)
Report from the British embassy, Pretoria to the Foreign office, London.

British Embassy, Pretoria

National Archives United Kingdom

David Astor correspondence to the British Ambassador Sir John Maud thanking him for helping him to get the books to Nelson Mandela (13 October 1962.) John Maud’s correspondence to David Astor confirming receipt the of Nelson Mandela letter's receiving the books (4 October 1962). Enclosed is a receipt from Nelson Mandela for the books (2 October 1962). Hand written note from Nelson Mandela confirming that he received the books via the embassy (14 September 1962). Correspondence from the resident commissioner , Mafikeng to the High commission, Cape Town. Nelson Mandela travels ( 20 January 1962). Correspondence from the High Commission in Cape Town to the Secretary of State Colonies. Arrival of Mandela in Lobatse and a charter to fly him to Tanganyika paid by a bank in Dar es Salaam (22 January 1962)

Astor, David

National Archives United Kingdom

Death sentence in Rivonia trial "unlikely"
Note (4 June 1964)
Upcoming judgment and sentence in the Rivonia trial
Note (2 June 1964)
The Australian representative to South Africa has been instructed to register his government's concern over the Rivonia trial.
Note (9 June 1964)
U.K. should abstain in the vote on the Rivonia resolution by Ivory Coast and Morocco unless is amended ( Add as that America will also abstain)
Note ( 10 June 1964)
Verdicts in the Rivonia trial
Telegram (11 June 1964)
Analysis of evidence at the Rivonia trial
Report ( 10 June 1964)
Decision to defer any attempt by the U.S. to get a reduction in Rivonia trail sentences until the defence has lodged an appeal.
Note ( 14 June 1964)
Unsigned copy of the Rivonia trial judgment
Judgment: Rivonia trial (15 June 1964)

Mary Benson Papers

The personal papers of Mary Benson. The collection includes:
Nelson Mandela’s statement from the dock at the Rivonia Trial. Correspondence, reports and statements about the treatment of political prisoners in South Africa; Reports by the International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) and Amnesty International. Attempts to publicise the conditions of prisoners, particularly Nelson Mandela, and information about the medical treatment of prisoners.
Papers related to Nelson Mandela’s imprisonment, collected by Benson when writing her biography of Mandela, "Nelson Mandela: the Man and the Movement."
Correspondence between Mandela and Mary Benson and between Benson and others people mainly related to Mandela and campaigns for his release from prison. Correspondents include Helen Suzman, Elinor Birley, Hilda Bernstein, Oliver Tambo, Winnie Mandela, Denis Healey and Ismail Ayob.
Typed notes on Mandela and other prisoners, as well as lists of political prisoners. News clippings concerning Mandela, mainly from British newspapers. Includes reports on the dropping of negligence charges against Mandela in 1967.

Benson, Mary

Papers of John Mendelson, M P

Letters, circulars, reports relating to South Africa including letter from the British Consulate-General in Johannesburg re the Rivonia Treason Trial (1963), copy of a letter from David Astor to Harold Wilson (1965), letter from Stop the Seventy Tour re possible resumption of arms sales (1970), letter from John Mendelson to David Astor re Nelson Mandela and his colleagues (1974).

Mendelson, John

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