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Archival description
Rivonia Trial
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GALA Oral History Project

GALA's Oral History Project was launched in co-operation with journalist Mark Gevisser to provide background material for Gevisser's film biography of Cecil Williams (The Man who Drove with Mandela). Williams was a well-known theatre director in South Africa in the 1950s. He was also a communist, underground activist and gay. These interviews form the bulk of the collection (Series A). It consists of more than 60 interviews on audio cassette with lesbians and gay men older than 60 at the time of the interview. Some of the interviews have been transcribed, and include some photographs and memorabilia. The interviews keyworded "Rivonia treason trial" are A1.12, A1.18, A1.32 and A1.49. A.1. are all interviews with gay men and lesbians about their lives in South Africa in the 1950s and 1960s. Restrictions apply.

Gay and Lesbian Archive (GALA)

Denis Goldberg Collection

  • ZA ASC-UNISA MR-RT-102
  • Collection
  • 1980 - 1989
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

Part of Documentation Centre for African Studies at UNISA Library. Denis Goldberg donated sound cassettes and videos about his life during the Struggle, as well as on his work after he was released. The only part of the collection directly related to the Rivonia Trial are the sound cassettes which have been put on CD (CD numbers correspond with cassette numbers). CDs re Rivonia Trial:
2A, 2B, 3A, 3B (1985): Interview of Denis Goldberg by John Pampallis including discussion of start of armed struggle, Liliesleaf, Rivonia Trial, imprisonment and release.
7A, 7B (1985/6): Discussion with R and C Boon re struggle time, Rivonia Trial, armed struggle.
26A, 26B (1993): Reconstruction of Rivonia for Radiowerf Amsterdam (?). New owners of Liliesleaf talk. Dutch narrative with English in background.

Goldberg, Denis Theodore

Records of the American Committee on Africa (ACOA)

35mm. Originals at the Amistad Research Centre, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Documents the pioneering anti-apartheid group in the US from its establishment in the 1950s. Reels related to Rivonia Trial are:
4:0827: Campaign against South African Apartheid: Memos, draft letters to and lists of sponsors, resolutions and declarations, flyers, clippings and notes 1963 (1960-1964). 87 frames. Major topics: Appeal for action against Apartheid, Rivonia arrests and trials, international boycott of South African goods etc.
15:1071: 108/5: African National Congress Pamphlets. 27 frame. Includes 1072: South African on Trial: Behind the Rivonia Case (no date). 13 frames.
22:1205: 111/12. Mandela, Nelson (ca. 1964). 31 frames. Major topic: Rivonia trial.
41:0798: 118/35. World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners: Rivonia Trial: Newsletters, statements, press releases, brochure (1963-1964). 31 frames.
42:0784: 119/23. Writings: Chief Albert Luthuli (1957 and 1964). 9 frames. Major topics: Racial situation, Rivonia trial, ANC.
42:0841: 119/26. Writings: Nelson Mandela (1961 and 1964). 70 frames. Major topics: 1961 Stay-at-home demonstration, Rivonia trial.

American Committee on Africa

Harold Wolpe Papers

There is no direct link between this material and Harold Wolpe's political activities at the time of the arrest at Rivonia, his subsequent arrest on the border of British Bechuanaland (now Botswana) or his ultimate escape but it is included as it speaks to the interests of one of those involved in activities at Liliesleaf farm. In fact, Harold Wolpe handled the purchase of the famous Rivonia farm.

This collection comprises material, mostly academic papers and articles related to law, sociology, development, economic theory, ethnicity, race, nationalism etc. It was delivered in box files (Section A), plus 21 drawers and boxes of index cards (Section B).

Wolpe, Harold

Jack and Ray Simons Papers

This extensive collection reflects the immense contribution made by the Simons' to the political, trade union and intellectual life of South Africa. F9.3 Trials: Treason and terrorism, 1957-1989 has one item related to the Rivonia: an ANC booklet entitled "South Africa on Trial: Behind the Rivonia Case." It outlines the trial, the history of the case, defendants' biographies. The aim was to encourage pressure not to impose the death penalty. It was printed in the UK. A further item may be related to the Rivonia Trial or to previous trials (it is undated): Typed notes (with manuscript additions) on High Treason and the South African Law.

Simons, Jack

Twenty Five Years of Apartheid

Panorama Series. Very short clip where Winnie Mandela greets the crowds with a raised fist and the BBC reporter Robin Ray reads out the statements made at the Rivonia Trial, including that of Nelson Mandela. FA8576: Complete 16mm print on one reel; FA5093: Reel one of two; FA5094: Reel two of two. Also on VHS.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

Carter-Karis Collection of South African Materials

  • ZA ASC-UNISA MR-RT-107
  • Collection
  • 1960 - 1980
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

This extensive collection was purchased by UNISA from Cooperative Africana Microfilm Project (CAMP). It is housed in Documentation Centre for Africa Studies. A microfilm reel guide is also available there. Rivonia Trial material is found at 2:YR2:84, 92, 97, and 99. It contains reaction to Rivonia, the States' "A factual analysis of the documentary exhibits handed in and of the oral testimony given at the so-called Rivonia Trial", documents seized in searched connected with the Rivonia Trial, and newspaper clippings.

Karis, Thomas

The State versus Nelson Mandela and Nine Others

Partial record of the State versus Nelson Mandela and nine others. Contains: State's Concluding Address : Part 2: The persons who were parties to the conspiracy and the implementation thereof (OP12099), Part.4: A factual analysis of the defence case and of the further documentary exhibits produced in the course thereof (OP12100); and Judgment and Sentence (1 volume: OP12098).

Department of Justice

The State versus Nelson Mandela and Nine Others

Partial record of the State versus Nelson Mandela and nine others. Contains only State's Concluding Address: vol.1: A factual analysis of the documentary exhibits handed in and of the oral testimony given, by the state witnesses.

Department of Justice

Liliesleaf Farm/Rivonia Trial Research Collection

Contains:
-Books and other published material related to Rivonia Trial including "Rivonia Unmasked" by Lauritz Strydom (Voortrekker Pers, Johannesburg). Published in January 1965 immediately after the Rivonia Trial, this book puts across the State's view of the trial. It has a Foreword by B J Vorster and an Introduction by Percy Yutar.
-Archival documents, maps and photographs from other institutions used as research and/or for displays
-Documents re Liliesleaf Farm development.

These records do not necessarily form a collection discrete from other Liliesleaf Farm collections but have been listed as such for ease of reference. Also see entries for Harold and Annemarie Wolpe Papers, Liliesleaf Farm Audio-Visual Collection, Liliesleaf Farm Artefact Collection, James Kantor Papers, Percy Yutar Papers.

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Denis Kuny Papers

Court records and other documents relating to trials in which Kuny (an advocate) was involved, including the Rivonia Trial where Denis Kuny was junior counsel. One box of Rivonia Trial material contains: A1.1 Indictments 1963 ; A1.2 Motion to quash the indictment 1963 ; A1.3 Defence requests for further particulars and the State's reply thereto; A1.4 Documents relating to Accused no 8 (James Kantor) including affidavit, request for particulars, petition, notes and a press cutting.

Records still in process.

Kuny, Denis

Records of the Centre for Applied Legal Studies (CALS)

Memoranda and other documents on political trials, conscientious objection, detentions, repression and the ANC Constitutional Committee. Section P1 Political Trials contains reports and documents concerning political trials in South Africa, including amongst others:
-Treason Trial (from: Political Science Quarterly)
-Mandela speech from the Dock (Rivonia Trial 1964)
-State vs. Dean of Johannesburg (1972)
-The trial of the 13 (Ngkungwana and others) By Shauna Westcott
-Ebrahim Ismail Ebrahim vs. the Apartheid State. By Rudi Boon
-The Passtoors trial. By Willem C van Manen
-Political Trials, South Africa 1976-1979. By Glenn Moss
-Security and related Trials in SA July 1976-May 1977 (SAIRR)
-Security Trials 1978 by Linda Ensor
-Letter from Judge Didcott to John Dugard re Andrew Zondo
-Delmas Trial 1980s
-Upington (Paballelo) 1989
-‘The Sun Will Rise’ statements from the dock by SA political prisoners (Sobukwe, Mandela, Sisulu, Motsoaledi, Mlangeni, Mkwayi, Fischer, ja Toivo, Tuhadeleni, April, Lekota, Mokoape, Suttner, Sexwale, Tsiki, Ramokgadi, Seko, Nkosi, Mothlanthe) Ed Mary Benson, 1981
-Political trials seminar. 19-21 May 1989
-Political prisoner status: Namibia 1989/1990

Centre for Applied Legal Studies (CALS)

Records of the Students' Resource Centre, University of Witwatersrand

Reports, pamphlets, minutes, publications, statements and photographs relating to NUSAS and SASPU, as well as miscellaneous information on various anti-apartheid and other organisations. A19.3 Publications and Media contain two items on Rivonia: A19.3.4: Rivonia - Tweny Years: A Resource Pack (published by ADAC) and A19.3.7: An Overview: Rivonia Trial (pamphlet).

Students' Resource Centre, University of the Witwaterand

Records of the Archibishops of Cape Town Part II

This large collection of records of the Anglican Church contains, amongst other things, much about the Church’s confrontation with the State over the issue of apartheid, notably the effects of the Group Areas Act on black churches in white areas and the admission or all races to church schools. Other topics are conscientious objection and the refusal of young Anglicans, both lay and clerical, to serve in the South African Defence Force and the question of Namibia’s independence and the expulsion of Bishops Mize and Winter for promoting it. C85 Current legislation (1957 - 1978) includes: 1964 correspondence re death sentence and long imprisonment for those convicted in the Rivonia Trial.

Anglican Church

Colin Purkey Papers

Correspondence, memoranda, reports, minutes, interviews, photographs and posters relating to the following organisations: Black Sash, Detainees' Parents Support Committee, End Conscription Campaign, Institute for a Democratic Alternative in South Africa, Jews for Social Justice, Johannesburg Democratic Action Committee, Mass Democratic Movement, National Education Union of South Africa, National Education Crisis Committee, NUSAS and the United Democratic Front.
Subjects are Namibia, education, trade unions, women, detentions, protest theatre and the Black liberation struggle. B. Political Organisations include Mandela's statement from the dock at the Rivonia Trial (B11.8.3).

Records of the African National Congress (ANC)

Constitution, minutes, reports, resolutions, Treason Trial legal records, press statements, speeches, correspondence, press clippings, pamphlets, periodicals, notes, and items on the A.N.C. Youth League and the A.N.C. Women's League together with other organisations such as the All African Convention, All African People's Conference and the South African Congress of Democrats. Subjects are apartheid, African nationalism, passes, education, Freedom Charter and the activities of the ANC in exile. Forms part of the archives of the South African Institute of Race Relations. Two items relate to the Rivonia Trial under Fa: Policy statements by ANC and related organisations (1946-1973): Fa46 "Stand by our leaders" (1964, 1 p.Ts. Asking for a boycott for 12 June when Rivonia Trialists will be sentenced) and Fa47 "The message of Rivonia" (1964, 1p. Ts.).

African National Congress (ANC)

South African Institute of Race Relations Press Clippings

The clippings relate to a great variety of subjects. Rivonia Trial material is under Political Trials 197.3 and 197.4. 197.3 has clippings from the Star and Rand Daily Mail Newspapers and subjects include: Harold Wolpe, details of the evidence being presented in the trial, Denis Goldberg and his alleged involvement in training camps, the independence of the judiciary, details of the case and the indictments. 197.4 has clippings mainly from the Star. Subjects include: sabotage and justifications for it, Joel Joffe leaving South Africa after the trial, the fact that the trialists would not appeal sentences, prison conditions, indemnity of Rivonia Trial witnesses, Bernstein leaving South Africa.

Institute of Race Relations (IRR)

Records of the Garment Workers Union

Minutes, correspondence, memoranda, printed items (including the Garment Worker), press clippings and photographs relating to the Garment Workers Union and its predecessor, the Witwatersrand Tailors Association. One paragraph in one item mentions the Rivonia Trial in Bba2.2.11 General correspondence 1951-1973. It is contained in a letter written by Violet Weinberg to Anna Scheepers re Weinberg's dismissal from the Industrial Council for the Clothing Industry (August 1964). Weinberg voices disagreement with Scheepers on a number of political and union-related points. It is in this context that political developments like the Trial are mentioned.

Garment Workers Union (GWU)

Karis/Gerhart Collection

Includes interviews, political documents, political trial material, trade union documents and biographical files covering the political scene from 1964-1990. Many are photocopies. There is no Rivonia Trial material in the political trial material but there are biographies on the accused: Mandela (reel 91), Kathrada (reel 90), Sisulu (reel 96), Mbeki (reel 92), Wolpe (reel 98) and supplementary biographical files on Motsoaledi, Goldberg and Bernstein.

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South African Police Museum and Archives Collection

The Museum contains evidence and documentation related to high profile police investigations. Rivonia Trial material is as follows:
Artefacts taken as evidence during the raid on Liliesleaf Farm:
-Three duplication machines (Roneo 750)
-Two radio transmitters
-Typewriter
Incomplete. These came to the Museum from John Vorster Square Police Station. They were then transferred back to the Police Station. When they were finally returned to the Museum, some artefacts and evidence was missing.

Archival files contain:
-One page on artefacts and their significance when transferred from John Vorster Square Police Station to the Museum in 1984.
-Labels from artefact evidence
-Pamphlets collected as evidence
-Instruction manual for duplication machine
-Press clippings from trial
-State's Concluding Address III (Afrikaans)
All 639.29-2/2A

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Liliesleaf Farm Artefact Collection

Artefacts and fragments from archaeological dig conducted at Liliesleaf Farm; artefacts in exhibits in the Museum; Hinterland truck used to smuggle arms into South Africa in 1980s and documentation on it; Awaiting Trial card from 1963 and notes passed between accused and lawyers during the Trial. For example, "Jimmy Kantor, Jolly Good Work. Denis"

These artefacts do not necessarily form a collection discrete from other Liliesleaf Farm collections but have been listed as such for ease of reference. Also see entries for Harold and Annemarie Wolpe Papers, Liliesleaf Farm Audio-Visual Collection, James Kantor Papers, Liliesleaf Farm/Rivonia Trial Research Collection, Percy Yutar Papers.

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The Voice of Nelson Mandela

Extracts from his famous Statement from the Dock. Produced in 2001.

South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Photographic Collection

  • ZA UWCRIMA MR-RT-123
  • Collection
  • 1940 - 1990
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

This collection was built up by the London-based IDAF, which was the nerve centre of the international anti-apartheid information campaign from the 1960s, and its photographs have been used in countless publications and productions over the past three decades.

The photographs related to the Rivonia Trial are all black and white photographs. The photographers are largely unknown. Subjects include:
-Scenes at the Rivonia Trial (LA55-33; LA271-2-4; LA272-2-1 and LA272-2-2: protestors with police; A42-6-1: protests on hearing verdict; A21-1-3: Winnie Mandela outside court; A14-4-1; A14-4-5; H10-2-1: Ruth First addressing post Rivonia rally; A1-3-1: Mandela's mother and Zinzi Mandela with Sheila Weinberg outside court; LA793-2-1: Joe Slovo and Yusuf Dadoo with placards during Trial; LA856-3-3: June Mlangeni wife of Andrew Mlangeni)
-Photographs of all the Trialists (LA242-6-4; LA271-2-5)
-Media reports (LA56-1, LA56-2)
-Photographs of the accused (LA26-3 and LA271-4-5: Denis Goldberg in disguise; LA26-5 and LA271-4-2: Rusty Bernstein; LA26-6: Ahmed Kathrada in disguise; LA26-9 and LA271-5-3: James Kantor; LA271-2-1: Walter Sisulu in disguise; LA271-2-2: Nelson Mandela; LA271-3-2: Bob Hepple; LA271-3-3: Arthur Goldreich; LA271-4-1: Raymond Mhlaba; LA271-4-3: police photo of Ahmed Kathrada; LA271-4-4: police photo of Govan Mbeki; LA271-5-4: Elias Motsoaledi; LA271-5-5: Andrew Mlangeni; EW21-1-2 and EW21-2-1: portrait of Ahmed Kathrada)
-Others involved or present (LA271-1-1: T B Vorster; LA271-1-2: Luit. Van Wyk; LA271-1-3: Dirker; LA271-1-4: Judge De Wet; LA271-1-5: Percy Yutar; LA271-3-1: Joe Slovo; LA271-7-5: security forces inspect Liliesleaf)
-Rivonia/Liliesleaf Farm (LA271-5-2: map of Rivonia area; LA271-6-2: interior of Liliesleaf House; LA271-6-3: plan of Liliesleaf Farm; LA271-7-4: Radio transmitter found by security forces)
-Miscellaneous (LA271-7-2: Mountainview house; LA271-7-3: Cover of 'Rivonia Masker AF!' book; LA272-1-1: petrol bomb; LA272-1-5: outline of Operation Mayibuye; LA272-1-2: diagram of weapon; LA272-1-3: weapons; LA272-1-4: diagram of hand grenade; LA272-2-3: letter of support to Sisulu from Canon Collins; LA272-2-4: house damaged by bomb blast; LA272-2-5: electricity pylons damaged by bomb blast)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

Digital Innovation South Africa (DISA)

DISA is a freely accessible online scholarly resource focusing on the socio-political history of South Africa, particularly the struggle for freedom during the period from 1950 to the first democratic elections in 1994.

A search for 'The State versus Nelson Mandela' yields the following scanned documents:
Bruno Mtolo's extract of evidence (vol. 15 and vol. 16), Walter Sisulu's extract of evidence (vol. 20), Ahmed Kathrada's extract of evidence (vol. 24), Raymond Mhlaba's extract of evidence (vol. 25), Lionel Bernstein's extract of evidence (vol. 26), Govan Mbeki's extract of evidence (vol. 28), judgement, judge's remarks when passing sentence. These documents were selected and scanned from the collection at Historical Papers, University of Witwatersrand (AD1844).

A search for 'Rivonia Trial' yields a poster (linked from SAHA Poster Collection entry) and an extract from the Rivonia Trial Statement made by Nelson Mandela which appeared in the journal Dawn (Volume 7 Number 6 June 1983 page 20). There are other articles too which make mention of the significance of the Trial in passing, mostly from the African Communist magazine.

Digital Innovation South Africa (DISA)

Mandela Manuscripts

Presented to Lloyd Cutler by South Africa’s Chief Justice Arthur Chaskalson in 1997. Lloyd Cutler was founding partner of the WilmerHale Law Firm and a civil rights activist in the US. They were to recognise the firm's role in the fight to end Apartheid.

Papers include transcripts of his speech at the 1963-64 Rivonia Trial, notes that Mandela made in his own handwriting both during his trial and as he sat in prison on the night before he heard the sentence on his life. These are copies of originals donated by President Mandela to Bram Fischer Library (now held at Historical Papers, University of Witwatersrand).

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Nelson Mandela Collection

The records of the Office of the ANC President were initially listed so that they could be used to complete the writing of Mandela’s Long Walk to Freedom. They were sent to his house in Houghton, and were returned to the ANC in 2004. The records cover the period from the time Nelson Mandela was ANC Deputy President (1990), ANC President (1991) to the time when he stepped down as ANC President (1997). It also however includes the few 1998-1999 records that were generated. The Nelson Mandela collection is divided into the following main series: Correspondence, Discussion Documents, Minutes of meeting, Reports, Statements, ANC departments, ANC Mission offices, ANC structures, Embassies, Negotiation/Elections, Organizations, Notebooks, Publications, Manuscripts, Memorabilia, and Braille material.

Although this collection does not relate to the Rivonia Trial, it has been included as it speaks to the post-prison involvement of the Trial's main accused.

Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla

Mandela Trials Papers

Photocopies of papers collected by Joel Joffe, lawyer acting for Nelson Mandela, relating to Mandela's trial in Pretoria (1962) and the Rivonia Trial (1963-1964); including Mandela's application to have the Pretoria trial postponed, October 1962; Mandela's address to the court in mitigation of the sentence of five years imprisonment, detailing his political commitment and activities in the African National Congress (ANC), November 1962; copy of the indictment in the Rivonia Trial, initial statement made by Mandela to his lawyers, giving details of his early life; notes by Mandela on his life and ANC association; copy of Mandela's statement from the dock, signed by Mandela, manuscript notes by Mandela to use if he were sentenced to death, and manuscript notes by Mandela referring to the tribal council called Imbizo.

Joffe, Joel

ICFTU Archives

Working papers of The International Confederation of Trade Unions. Rivonia Trial related records:
4873 Correspondence concerning the Rivonia trial. 1963-1965. 1 folder.
4874-4875 Correspondence concerning the Treason Trials. Including correspondence with the South Africa Defence and Aid Fund. 1956-1969. 2 folders.
48741956-1962. 48751963-1969.

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)

Interview with Nelson Mandela

Part of Kairos collection.
Sound for film. Interview with Nelson Mandela re Rivonia trial (amongst other topics) in Dutch (?)

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Africana Video Collection

A number of video recordings relating to the life story of Nelson Mandela and thus mentioning the Rivonia Trial. Including:
-Mandela (968 M271Zma), vhs, 135 minutes; c1987; directed by Philip Saville. Contains a dramatic reenactment of his unjust trial for treason, lengthy imprisonment.
-Mandela: The First Accused (968 M271Zmandl), vhs, 109 minutes; 1999; director, Clifford Bestall; producers, Indra de Lanerolle, David Fanning.

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Cape Argus/Cape Times Clippings Collection

Newspaper clippings in subject files were created by Cape Times and Cape Argus newspapers and transferred to the National Library.

Subject entries under 53138 Treason Trials 1961-1970 for Cape Argus and Treason 1963 may have items relating to the Rivonia Trial.

Cape Times

South African Trials

Transcripts of political cases.
Peripherally related to the Rivonia Trial is File 4: Inquest to establish cause of death of Looksmart Ngudle. It contains: transcript of complete proceedings. Pretoria, 21st Oct. 1963 - 23rd Dec. 1963. Looksmart Ngudle, a ninety-day detainee held under the Sabotage Act, was found dead, hanging in his cell at Pretoria Central Police Station, on September 5th, after 16 days in detention. He had been arrested in Cape Town and was found in possession of a firearm and some African National Congress leaflets. The four witnesses, held at the same time as Ngudle, said when cross-examined by the Defence that they had been tortured with electric shocks and severe beatings. One said that he was forced to sign a statement claiming that Ngudle was an important Umkonto we Sizwe leader (Ngudle was named in the Rivonia Trial as a co-conspirator). Each of the witnesses stated that Ngudle had told them that he was being tortured. The state claimed that Ngudle hanged himself because he had betrayed his comrades and had been told that he was going to be sentenced to death anyway. Further evidence of torture was ruled irrelevant: the court refused to accept the Defence's contention that torture (which the police denied) was a contributing factor to Ngudle's suicide. The hearing was adjourned.

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Life Under Apartheid Collection

The programmes and documents in this collection illustrate what life was like for ordinary South Africans under Apartheid, as well as documenting key political moments.

Items related directly to the Rivonia Trial:
-BBC Television programme: Panorama: Race Problems Around the World. The documentary deals with the growth of racial tension in the Britain and the USA as Mandela is imprisoned for life. This programme was first broadcast on 15 June 1964. 50 minutes, 25 seconds in length. Contains a report by Robin Day from Pretoria where Mandela and others have been sentenced in the Rivonia Trial. Includes interviews with those who condemn the trial and sentencing: Helen Suzman, Alan Paton, Winnie Mandela.
-Letter from a cameraman about "Panorama" programme (28 June 19964). This letter was sent by Ernest Christie to the series producer David Wheeler on South African press reaction to Robin Day's segment in the "Panorama: Race Problems Around the World" which he had filmed.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

African Writers' Club: BBC Africa Services Collection

Talk about the struggle of black people of South Africa living under apartheid. The speaker talks about the role of the African National Congress (ANC) in the fight for freedom. The names of many freedom fighters are listed. There is also a detailed discussion about the 'Rivonia Treason Trial'.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

Rivonia Trial, South Africa, 1963-4: Nelson Mandela Dictabelt Dubbings

Dubbings of seven dictabelts loaned by the National Archives of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa, of court recordings made at the Court of Justice in Pretoria on 20 April 1964. The blue 'dictabelts' are a type of audio recording, developed by the Dictaphone company, which was mainly used in offices between the 1940s and the 1960s. The short broad plastic belts were capable of being flattened and posted but could not be wiped and reused. It appears that the whole Rivonia Trial was recorded on dictabelts in line with normal court procedure at the time. These dubbings comprise only the opening of the defence case by Defence Counsel Bram Fischer, followed by interjections from Justice Quartus de Wet and Prosecutor Percy Yutar, then a three-hour speech by Accused Number One (Nelson Mandela). Extracts from the recordings have been published by SABC entitled 'The voice of Nelson Mandela: extracts from famous speeches', SABC/EMI, 2002 (EMI 724353736521; NSA shelfmark 1CD0189137).

Transcripts available.

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British Library Newspaper Collection

Collections includes all UK national daily and Sunday newspapers from 1801 to the present, most UK and Irish regional and local newspapers, selected newspapers from around the world in European languages, a range of UK and Irish popular periodicals, mostly published weekly and fortnightly.

These would include coverage of the Rivonia Trial.

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Mandela

Political biography of Nelson Mandela and his unique role in the liberation struggle in South Africa. Includes archive material of the Treason trial, the Rivonia trial and a filmed interview while underground. Directed by Lionel Ngakane and Niven Howie. Produced by Divemay Films. Edited by Julia Beer.

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Africana Collection

The Library collection of roughly 200,000 books, pamphlets, maps and microform units covers all areas and disciplines. There is an emphasis on the socio-economic development and history of sub-Saharan Africa, with special emphases (reflecting faculty interests) on Ethiopia/Eritrea, Zimbabwe, South Africa, the Sahel region of West Africa, and Nigeria (especially the Eastern Region).

Materials related to the Rivonia Trial include:
- A number of video recordings relating to the life story of Nelson Mandela and thus mentioning the Rivonia Trial in the Audio-Visual Materials on Africa
-Microform and photocopies of Kathrada Collection (originals at UWC-Robben Island Mayibuye Centre) in Special Collections. Over 100 fiche in 13 boxes. DT1949.K38A4 1996; also on film: SPEC COLL RARE BOOKS XX 27823 Microfilm. Guide (1995) available at DT1949.K38S35 1995
-The Voice of Nelson Mandela (SABC, 1999), which includes extracts from the Statement from the Dock. In general library holdings (MSU DIGITAL/MEDIA AUDIODISC, 4 WEST - PT1974 .M36 1999 Audio disc)

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African Activist Archive

  • US AI002 MR-RT-140
  • Collection
  • 1950 - 1999
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

Gathered from various repositories and private sources to preserve records and memories of activism in the United States in support of the struggles of African peoples against colonialism, apartheid, and social injustice from the 1950s through the 1990s.

A search for Rivonia Trial material yields:
-Photographs of demonstrations outside the South African Consulate in New York protesting the outcome of the Rivonia Trial (from private collections and American Committee on Africa)
-Buttons: "Free Motsoaledi", "Free Kathrada" "Free Mandela", "Happy birthday Motsoaledi" (from Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa)

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Records of the American Committee on Africa (ACOA)

Documents the pioneering anti-apartheid group in the US from its establishment in the 1950s. Documents related to Rivonia Trial are:
-Campaign against South African Apartheid: Memos, draft letters to and lists of sponsors, resolutions and declarations, flyers, clippings and notes 1963 (1960-1964). Major topics: Appeal for action against Apartheid, Rivonia arrests and trials, international boycott of South African goods etc.
-African National Congress Pamphlets. Includes: South African on Trial: Behind the Rivonia Case (no date).
-Mandela, Nelson (ca. 1964). Major topic: Rivonia trial.
-World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners: Rivonia Trial: Newsletters, statements, press releases, brochure (1963-1964).
-Writings: Chief Albert Luthuli (1957 and 1964). Major topics: Racial situation, Rivonia trial, ANC.
-Writings: Nelson Mandela (1961 and 1964). Major topics: 1961 Stay-at-home demonstration, Rivonia trial.

Microfilm versions available at Manuscripts and Archives, University of Cape Town.

American Committee on Africa

Reddy (ES) Papers

The papers consist of correspondence and printed material relating to South Africa and Namibia and document E. S. Reddy's work with anti-apartheid organizations around the world.
Subject file entitled "Rivonia Trial 1964" (Box 7, folder 342).

Reddy, Enuga S.

Pamphlet Collection

A collection of pamphlets from African, South American, Latin American, Asian, European, and North American countries which include material relating to politics, economics, social conditions, agriculture, legal topics, religious activities, history, government operations, education, and other areas. The collection is particularly strong in the area of African materials, with several nations represented. This collection is keyworded as containing Rivonia Trial material but the references are unclear.

Canada and the Fight Against Apartheid

  • CA CBC-DA MR-RT-145
  • Collection
  • 1960 - 1999
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

Series of radio and television reports on South Africa broadcast from the 1960s through the first democratic elections in 1994. Items related to the Rivonia Trial are:
-Escaped lawyer describes apartheid's brutal laws (from CBC Radio, Nov. 17, 1964): Harold Wolpe defended oppressed blacks until he was imprisoned. Guest: Harold Wolpe, host: Bob Wilson, narrator: Paul Wright, duration: 25:57
-Mandela and seven colleagues sentenced colleagues sentenced (from CBC Radio, National Radio News, June 12, 1964): Reporter Patrick Keatley is in London to explain why the defendants likely avoided a death sentence. Host: Alex Trebek, reporter: Patrick Keatley, duration: 2:58.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC)

Archive of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM)

Archive of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM) and predecessor material including the Boycott Movement. Material directly related to the Rivonia Trial includes:
O.7 Political Prisoners Campaigns, 1956-95:
-O.7.1.b Correspondence, 1962-70: Correspondence concerning the Rivonia trialists and other condemned South African leaders, 1964 (MSS AAM 1791)
-O.7.5.e General files, 1961-95: Information on the Rivonia trial and trialists, 1963-90 (MSS AAM 1953)

W.2 African National Congress (ANC) posters, 1978-95:
'We salute our leaders. Sentenced to life imprisonment. Rivonia 1963. Mandela, Sisulu, Mbeki, Mhlaba, Motsoaledi, Mlangeni, Kathrada, Goldberg.' 1980s? Mainly black and white; photographs (MSS AAM 2512/2/4), 1 poster

Rivonia Trial references might also appear in other parts of this collection for example, the campaigns the AAM took relating to the Trial might appear in the minutes of the Executive Committee and in annual reports.

British Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM)

Mary Benson Papers

  • GB ULSOAS MR-RT-147
  • Collection
  • 1946 - 1974
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

The sections of the collection related to the Rivonia Trial are press cuttings concerning political protest, especially the Treason and Rivonia Trials c 1958-1962. Related collection also at Institute of Commonwealth Studies, London University.

Benson, Mary

Papers of Sir Patrick Wall

  • US UHBJL MR-RT-149
  • Collection
  • 1890 - 1992
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

Sir Patrick was Vice Chairman of the British Section of the Inter Parliamentary Union (1974 - 1984) and Chairman of the British Bahrain, British Maltese, British South Africa and British Taiwan Groups. He represented Britain at the 17th General Assembly of the United Nations in 1962. The introduction of the General Law Amendment Act, the Rivonia Trials and the United Nations conference on sanctions are some of the more significant topics on which files were accumulated in the early 1960s [DPW/48/484; 487; 486 & 488].

Wall, Patrick

National Archives and Records Administration Records: Department of State and Embassies in Southern Africa

The documents related to the Rivonia Trial described below are from Record Group 59 which reflects the diplomatic work of the Department of State and embassies in southern Africa, particularly in South Africa. References to these records were identified, inventoried and made searchable as part of the South African Research and Archival Project (SARAP) at Howard University in Washington, D.C. designed to identify, locate, inventory and disseminate information pertaining to the involvement of Americans in the liberation struggle of South Africans, especially during the anti-apartheid movement. The records themselves can only be accessed at the National Archives repository listed below. These may not be a comprehensive listing of all State Department records related to the Rivonia Trial.

Box 2637: Political 30-2 S AFR: Documents pertaining to various individuals and organizations, including ANC, UNIAS, OAU, African Liberation Committee [ALC], PAFMECA, ANC, SWAPO, SWANU, and PAC. A report on ANC's statement on the Rivonia Trial and a PAC representative in Ghana, Matthew Nkoana. Airgram memoranda with the following subjects, "First Issue of Pan Africanist Congress Information Bulletin," "ANC Statement on Rivonia Trial Verdict," "Report on Political Exiles from South and South-West Africa," and "Representative of Pan Africanist Congress Begins Writing for Ghanaian Newspaper" (1964-1966). Discussed or referenced: James Hadebe, Jacob, Nyoase, E.L. Ntloedibe, Raymond Kunene, Robert Resha, Tennyson Makewane, Jacob Nyoase, Colin Legum, Jariretundu Kozunguizi, Sam Nujoma, and John Eldridge of the African-American Institute.
Box 2636: POL 29 S AFR 8/1/64: Documents pertaining to the Rivonia Trial, including a memorandum of conversation with Abraham Fischer, Attorney General for convicted saboteurs; kidnapping of Rosemary Wentzel from Swaziland to South Africa; Eastern Cape communism trial of 74 Africans; and sentencing of Pascal Ngcane, Chief Albert Luthuli's Son-in-Law.
Box 2636:POL 29 S AFR 6/1/64: Documents pertaining mostly to the Rivonia Trial; reactions from around the world on the trial, including protests from the US National Council of Churches and ANC statement from Tanzania on the trial; criticism from Jomo Kenyatta of Britain and US support for South Africa.
Box 2636: POL 29 Arrests, Detention S AFR 5/1/64: Documents pertaining to trials and detentions in South Africa including the Rivonia trial and detention of Chief Albert Luthuli; mentioned in the reports include Raymond Mhlaba, Ahmed Kathrada, Walter Sisulu and Lionel Bernstein; a report on a Nigerian government official regarding problems that would erupt if Mandela and others were given death sentences; a letter to the President of the UN Special Committee on Apartheid regarding trials in South Africa and memorandum on the reply from the President. A confidential memorandum and report on "The Apartheid Trials in South Africa," including a discussion of the Rivonia Trial. Several telegrams concerning the Rivonia trial. Discussed or referenced: Govan Mbeki, Albert Luthuli, Nelson Mandela, Lionel Bernstein, Ahmed Mohamed Kathrada, Walter Sisulu, African National Congress, the Pan Africanist Congress, and the Communist Party of South Africa. A telegram with abridged statistics on black and white land use, salaries, malnutrition, and morbidity in South Africa. (1963).

US State Department

Papers of Stephen Clingman Relating to Bram Fischer

The papers were collected by Stephen Clingman while researching his biography entitled "Bram Fischer: Afrikaner Revolutionary" (1998). They are mainly photocopies of correspondence and newspaper cuttings.

The Rivonia Trial material appears in section relating to legal and political cases in which Bram Fischer was involved (boxes 20-21), Shelfmark: MSS. Afr. S. 2444 / 21, 1 box (285 folios):
fols. 1-157) the Rivonia Trial (1963-6). Includes newspaper cuttings and typescripts entitled:
-Operation Mayibuye'
-'The Voice of the African National Congress'
-'A Call To The Youth' (issued by the Johannesburg District of the South African Communist Party)

Clingman, Stephen

Records of ANC Morogoro Office

Four publications relate to the Rivonia Trial:
-On Trial for Their Lives, Mary Benson, 1965
-Reasons for Plunging South Africa into Guerrilla Warfare, Walter Sisulu, 1964
-On Violence in South Africa, Ahmed Kathrada, 1964
(all Box 18, folder 167)
-An Afrikaner against Apartheid, Bram Fischer, 1966 (Box 8, folder 69)

African National Congress (ANC) Morogoro Office

Records of ANC Australia Mission

Audiocassettes of Govan Mbeki, Paul Murphy and Nelson Mandela (date unclear).

Also videos that make reference to Rivonia Trial:
-Generations of Resistance
-I Shall Never Lose Hope - interview with Winnie Mandela
-Spear of the Nation - a history of the ANC

African National Congress (ANC) Australia Mission

Records of the ANC French Mission

Video on the history of the ANC, 1949-1960s, entitled Viva Mandela that refers to Rivonia Trial.

African National Congress (ANC) French Mission

UK: Protest Against South African Sabotage Trial Sentence - Petition for United Nations

Reuters programme from 15 June 1964 re Mr Butler, Britain's Foreign Secretary, telling that the South African government were aware of British government's objection to the Rivonia Trial but that the matter should not be taken further while there was still a question about whether they would appeal. Also re petition to the UN calling for release of all political prisoners in South Africa.

ITN Source represents the footage libraries of Reuters (including historic newsreel collections), ITN, ITV Productions, Fox News and Fox Movietone, Channel 9 News, UTV, Asian News International and other specialist collections.

Reuters

UK: London: Anti-Apartheid Meeting Raises Funds For New World Campaign

Reuters programme from 28 February 1964 re "Torture in South Africa" - a meeting held in London to protest against Apartheid. Admission fees for the meeting went to new organisations "The World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners" formed after Rivonia Trial.

ITN Source represents the footage libraries of Reuters (including historic newsreel collections), ITN, ITV Productions, Fox News and Fox Movietone, Channel 9 News, UTV, Asian News International and other specialist collections.

Reuters

Sunday Times Heritage Project

Online selection of images and caption stories from the pages of the Sunday Times including the following from Rivonia Trial:
-ANC, POQO, Spear, smashed says Col. V.d, Bergh (14 July 1963) re arrests at Liliesleaf Farm in Rivonia
-Rivonia: The Inside Story (14 June 1964) re outcome of the Trial
Sunday Times newspapers can also be accessed at the National Library in Pretoria and Cape Town.

Sunday Times

The Guardian and the Observer Digital Archive

This archive will eventually contain the digital reproduction of every page, article and advert published in the Guardian (since 1821) and the Observer (since 1791). Currently it is up to 2000. A search for Rivonia Trial reveals articles from both newspapers.

Guardian

The National Security File: Country File: Africa, Union of South Africa

The National Security File was the working file of President Johnson's special assistants for national security affairs, McGeorge Bundy and Walt W Rostow.
Vol. 1, 11/63 - 10/64; vol. 2, 11/64 - 9/66; vol. 3, 10/66 - 9/68 contain scattered references to the Rivonia Trial.

This repository may include other references to the Rivonia Trial in Presidential correspondence, National Security Memoranda, White House Central Files, Office Files of White House Aides. These were not confirmed in this audit.

Johnson, Lyndon B.

South African Documents and Press Clippings Collection

Documents and press clippings concerning various topics related to South African politics and government. Includes press clippings on four political trials: Bram Fischer Trial, Rivonia Trial, Trial of 22, Breyten Breytenbach Trial.

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Mandela Materials Database

The Mandela Materials Database is a guide to the Mandela archive located with the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory and Dialogue and elsewhere. Both local and international repositories have been surveyed for any material on Mr Mandela to include in the database. The purpose of this database is to point researchers to the relevant repositories holding the actual archival material. Although much of the material identified in the database does not relate directly to the Rivonia Trial, it has been referenced here as Mandela was one of the main protagonists in the Rivonia Trial. Any material directly related to the Rivonia Trial as been cross-referenced in this database.

Nelson Mandela Foundation (NMF)

National Intelligence Agency Archive

Inventory accessed contains one manuscript (bound photocopy in three parts) in Nelson Mandela's handwriting: "How to be a Good Communist; Dialectical Materialism; Political Economy". Preceding the manuscript are two pages from Mandela's Statement from the Dock (pages 45 and 46) and a photocopy of a sub-file indicating what the manuscript is about and that is was seizd at Rivonia.

There may be other records related to the Rivonia Trial in this archive

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Magnus Gunther Collection

Collection contains research for book he intended to write on the National Committee for Liberation (NCL)/African Resistance Movement (ARM). The book was not completed before his death. Four items in the collection relate to the Rivonia Trial:
PC170/7/3/3/3: Copy of interview with Bob Hepple by Lt. Swanepoel, Lt. van Wyk and D/Seargent van Zyl at the Grays, Johannesburg (9-8-63). Hepplie furnished information to these three on three conditions: 1. Information would not be used against him in any prosecution; 2. He would not be used as a State Witness; 3. He would be protected from disclosure as a source of information.
PC170/7/3/3/4: Copy of notes on Bob Hepple (in Afrikaans)
PC170/7/3/2/14: Copy of interview with Denis Goldberg by Howard Barrell, London, 7 February 1990
PC170/7/3/2/16: Copy from National Archives of a classified telegram (now declassified)) from Department of State Control no. 14548. Summary of information on Denis Goldberg, 19 May 1964

Gunther, Magnus

Rivonia Trial, 1963-1964

This South African material at this repository was collected by Thomas Karis for "From Protest to Challenge" and is in the Karis-Gerhart Collection of South African Political Trials. It contains the following on the Rivonia Trial:
-MF-451 Neg. MF: Rivonia Sabotage Trial: Not an official transcript. File consists of defence attorney's detailed notes on transcript, analyses of evidence and exhibits. Also includes the indictment. 4 reels
-MF-2611 Neg. MF-966: The Rivonia Trial, J G Joffe and M Koff. Microfilm of typescript. 1 reel.
-MF-10791 reel 35 item 6: Rivonia: Operation Mayibuye: A Review of the Rivonia Trial, H H W de Villiers with a foreward by Francis Napier Broome.

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Rivonia Trial

  • MR-RT
  • Record Group
The Rivonia Trial, arguably the most significant political trial in South African history, generated a vast archive, ranging from the official court records to media coverage of the trial. This database, and the records audit on which it is built, constitutes a first step towards documenting the archive. The need for the database was determined by the fragmentary and scattered nature of the archive.

Nelson Mandela Foundation (NMF)

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