Occasion - Presidential address to the ANC (Transvaal) Congress Summary - The political climate has changed from the successes of the Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws of 1952 and the ANC must be prepared with a new approach and with a strong and disciplined membership. The new approach is called the "M" Plan and calls for active recruitment and action at the grassroots level. This will enable the ANC to function without calling attention to itself. There is no place in the ANC for those opposed to the "M" Plan.
Occasion - Annual conference of the African National Congress Youth League Summary - This address outlines the main threats in the world (imperialism, capitalism), in Africa (colonialism), and in South Africa (fascism). African Nationalism is seen as the response to these threats and the Youth League is seen as the guardian of this ideology. The Youth League should not continue to debate African Nationalism as an ideology but rather focus on how to mobilise the masses in a national struggle, how to respond to the Suppression of Communism Act and how to organise and discipline its members.